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Optic neuritis (ON) is associated with a 38% ten-year risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) in Western populations, but the corresponding risk in non-Western populations is unclear. We conducted this study to estimate the risk of progression to MS after an episode of ON in a South Asian population.
Two hundred and fifty-three patients with idiopathic ON were identified by reviewing records of visual evoked potentials and chart notes from a single academic center spanning the years 1990-2007. A structured telephone interview was then conducted to identify patients who had subsequently received a diagnosis of MS. The diagnosis was corroborated from chart notes, where possible. Cumulative probability of conversion to MS was calculated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.
The five-year risk of developing MS was 14.6% and the ten-year risk was 24%. Patients (N=218) who had one or more typical demyelinating lesions on baseline brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) had a 68% 10-year risk; those with no lesions or non-typical lesions had a 14% risk (p<0.001). Female gender, recurrent ON, and occurrence of ON in winter months were also associated with increased risk (p≤ 0.001). Severity of ON and likelihood of detecting cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oligoclonal bands were higher in patients who developed MS.
Idiopathic ON in Pakistan carries a lower risk of progression to MS compared with Western data. As in Western populations, however, presence of abnormal baseline brain MRI and CSF oligoclonal bands correlate with increased MS risk.
: The purpose of this retrospective review of all operated cases of pituitary adenomas in the last decade, is to define the demographic patterns and characteristics of such tumors and to assess surgical outcomes with regards to safety and efficacy of trans–sphenoidal tumor removal in our institution.
Surgically treated pituitary adenomas presenting from 1995 till 2005 were reviewed for different variables. Results were expressed as mean, standard deviation and median for continuous and number with percentage for categorical data. Chi square test was applied to measure differences and significance was taken at p value < 0.05.
One hundred and twenty–five patients were operated for pituitary adenoma. Sixty–three percent were male and mean age was 37 years. Sixty percent of the patients presented with headache and/or visual symptoms. Twelve percent presented with pituitary apoplexy and 28% presented with symptoms due to pituitary hyperfunction. Fifty–five percent of patients had functioning and 44% had nonfunctioning adenomas. Mean pre operative tumor diameter from 86 pre op MRI scans was 26.76 mm (3–78 mm). Eighty–four percent of patients underwent trans–sphenoidal tumor resection and three percent had craniotomy. Mean size of post op residual tumor as calculated from 76 available post operative scans was 5.3 mm (range 0–31 mm). 17.6% of the patients required hormone replacement beyond three months and 10% were re–operated. Overall mortality was 1.6%.
In Pakistan, patients are more likely to present either with apoplexy or with a giant pituitary adenoma than patients reported from developed countries. Overall, our results have been satisfactory and comparable with the literature.
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