Since the discovery of glass-ceramics by Stookey in the 1950s, there has been increasing demand for glass-ceramics with high strength and toughness for medical, structural, and consumer electronics markets. This article reviews recent developments in composition, microstructure, and mechanical properties of glass-ceramics, with an emphasis on their mechanical performance. It reveals that glass-ceramics with strength and toughness comparable to structural ceramics, such as Al2O3, have been successfully developed. Meanwhile, efforts are being devoted to creating glass-ceramics with further improved damage resistance. With inspiration from natural materials such as jade, baddeleyite, bone, and nacre, glass-ceramics with unique microstructures and properties have been obtained. Further progress is needed in the design of novel compositions, microstructures, and phase assemblages to activate multiple toughening mechanisms in glass-ceramics for significant improvements in strength and toughness.