Centimetre-level RTK solutions are mainly influenced by satellite orbit errors, ionospheric and tropospheric delays, and measurement noise (including multipath effects). Estimation and mitigation of the main errors for the CM-level Compass RTK solutions over medium-long baselines are investigated. Tests conducted for this research lead to the following conclusions:
1.It is shown that the RTK solutions estimated from the least squares (LS) with the RZTD parameters are worse than that without these parameters. For instance, the errors in the height components are amplified approximately three times, which may be caused by the strong correlation between the introduced RZTD parameters and the height components. However, considering the fact that the residual zenith tropospheric delays vary slowly with time and the variation can be assumed to follow a random walk process, the RTK solutions can be improved using the Kalman filter and a priori information for the RZTD parameters.
For 100 km baselines, a 4 cm error in height component will be induced by a 10 m orbit error. For longer baselines, rapid precise ephemeris will be needed for CM-level accuracy RTK solutions.2.
The residual ionospheric delay error can be eliminated using the optimal triple-frequency ionosphere-free linear combination with the coefficients of 2·6087, −0·5175 and −1·0912 respectively for observations on f1, f2 and f3 frequencies. This combination is optimal in terms of its noise level, e.g., the noise is only amplified three times. It can be used for high accuracy RTK positioning.3.
The residual tropospheric delay can be resolved for the introduced relative zenith tropospheric delay (RZTD) parameters.