Psychological disorders are highly prevalent worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between major dietary patterns and prevalence of psychological disorders in a large sample of Iranian adults.
A cross-sectional study was done to identify dietary patterns derived from factor analysis. Dietary data were collected through the use of a validated dish-based semi-quantitative FFQ. Psychological health was examined by use of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the General Health Questionnaire.
The study was conducted in Isfahan, Iran, within the framework of the Study on Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health and Nutrition (SEPAHAN).
Iranian adults (n 3846) aged 20–55 years.
After adjustment for potential confounders, greater adherence to the lacto-vegetarian dietary pattern was protectively associated with depression in women (OR=0·65; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·91). Normal-weight participants in the top quintile of this dietary pattern tended to have decreased odds of anxiety compared with those in the bottom quintile (OR=0·61; 95 % CI 0·38, 1·00). In addition, the traditional dietary pattern was associated with increased odds of depression (OR=1·42; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·99) and anxiety (OR=1·56; 95 % CI 1·00, 2·42) in women. Normal-weight participants in the highest quintile of the traditional dietary pattern had greater odds for anxiety (OR=1·89; 95 % CI 1·12, 3·08) compared with those in the lowest quintile. The Western dietary pattern was associated with increased odds of depression in men (OR=1·73; 95 % CI 1·07, 2·81) and anxiety in normal-weight participants (OR=2·05; 95 % CI 1·22, 3·46). There was a significant increasing trend in the odds of psychological distress across increasing quintiles of the fast food dietary pattern in women (P-trend=0·02).
Recommendation to increase the intake of fruits, citrus fruits, vegetables, tomato and low-fat dairy products and to reduce the intakes of snacks, high-fat dairy products, chocolate, carbonated drinks, sweets and desserts might be associated with lower chance of psychological disorders.