Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is one of the most commonly performed treatments for infertile or hypofertile couples. General indications for IUI include cervical factor infertility, male infertility, minimal to mild endometriosis, and unexplained infertility. Age of the female, duration of infertility, follicular count, presence of trilaminar endometrium, sperm count and morphology are the various parameters which determines the outcome of IUI. The choice of IUI versus other forms of artificial insemination, the use of natural cycles versus controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH), timing of insemination, the number of IUI cycles to be carried, whether the couple will need single or double insemination, the type of catheter, and the choice of sperm preparation technique are the various options available to the couples. Contamination with viruses has also occurred during use of reproductive technologies. However, there is evidence that use of IUI with washed sperm may decrease the risk of contamination.