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The influence of tilt on flow reversals in two-dimensional thermal convection in rectangular cells with two typical aspect ratios,
and 2, are investigated by means of direct numerical simulations. For
, tilt tends to suppress flow reversals. However, it is found that flow reversals characterized by two main rolls are promoted by tilt for
, which are even observed for some cases of small Prandtl numbers (
) and large tilt angles (
). Different from level cases where the four corner rolls all have opportunities to grow and trigger a flow reversal, the reversals in an anticlockwise tilted cell with
are always led by the growth of the bottom-right or the top-left corner roll. Tilt is favourable for the growth of the bottom-right or the top-left corner roll and thus for breaking the balance between the two main rolls and triggering a flow reversal. The mode decomposition analysis shows that the appearance of the intermediate single-roll mode is crucial for reversals, and flow reversals in a tilted cell with
can be viewed as a mode competition process between single-roll mode and horizontally adjacent double-roll mode. They can only occur in a limited range of
where the two modes have comparable strength. Furthermore, the Nusselt numbers at the hot plate
and at the cold plate
behave differently during a flow reversal for
due to the preference of single corner roll growth.
A joint diagnostic system was established for the diagnosis of laser-driven shock wave experiments. The system has high temporal resolution (time resolution ~12 ps) and high spatial resolution (spatial resolution ~7 μm) and fits for diagnostics of the experiment with small sample size and short time physical process. The joint diagnostic system was applied for shock wave measurement on the Shenguang-II laser facility. The passive shock breakout signal and active diagnostic signal were simultaneously obtained. The temporal measurement reliability of the system was verified using a multi-layered target. The experimental results show that the two measurement results were consistent.
In this work, the relationship between the substrate crystallinity and the on-state resistances of silicon carbide (SiC) photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSSs) was investigated. PCSSs with different channel lengths were fabricated on semi insulating 6H–SiC having different crystal qualities. A method was introduced for determining the photoconductive capacity of the SiC PCSSs. The experimental data suggest that the photoconductive capacity decreases sharply with the degradation of the full width at half maximum of the rocking curve of the 6H–SiC substrates. It is found that increasing the carrier mobility is a key factor for reducing the on-state resistance of the 6H–SiC PCSSs. Moreover, the results in this work present reference for the selection of 6H–SiC substrates for the fabrication of PCSSs and some other photoelectric devices.
A new method of epitaxial growth of CoSi2 film on Si substrate by ternary solid state interaction is investigated. XRD, RBS and TEM show that single-crystalline CoSi2 can be formed on both Si (111) and (100) substrates by using Co/Ti/Si or TiN/Co/Ti/Si multilayer. The evolution of multilayer structure and its resistivity is studied and epitaxy mechanism is discussed. Experimental results indicate strong affinity between Co and Si. During the ternary interaction the epitaxial CoSi2 can be grown directly on Si and its growth may behave as a diffusion controlled process. The thickness of Ti layer and the annealing procedure have important effect on CoSi2 epitaxial growth.
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