To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Studies show that vitamin D (vit-D) (25(OH)D), the bioactive metabolite (1,25(OH)2D3) and vit-D receptors (vit-D receptor; protein disulphide isomerase, family A member 3) are expressed throughout the brain, particularly in regions pivotal to learning and memory. This has led to the paradigm that avoiding vit-D deficiency is important to preserve cognitive function. However, presently, it is not clear if the common clinical measure of serum 25(OH)D serves as a robust surrogate marker for central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis or function. Indeed, recent studies report CNS biosynthesis of endogenous 25(OH)D, the CNS expression of the CYP group of enzymes which catalyse conversion to 1,25(OH)2D3 and thereafter, deactivation. Moreover, in the periphery, there is significant ethnic/genetic heterogeneity in vit-D conversion to 1,25(OH)2D3 and there is a paucity of studies which have actually investigated vit-D kinetics across the cerebrovasculature. Compared with peripheral organs, the CNS also has differential expression of receptors that trigger cellular response to 1,25(OH)2D3 metabolites. To holistically consider the putative association of peripheral (blood) abundance of 25(OH)D on cognitive function, herein, we have reviewed population and genetic studies, pre-clinical and clinical intervention studies and moreover have considered potential confounders of vit-D analysis.
Archaeological data and research results are essential to addressing such fundamental questions as the origins of human culture; the origin, waxing, and waning of civilizations and cities; the response of societies to long-term climate changes; and the systemic relationships implicated in human-induced changes in the environment. However, we lack the capacity for acquiring, managing, analyzing, and synthesizing the data sets needed to address important questions such as these. We propose investments in computational infrastructure that would transform archaeology’s ability to advance research on the field’s most compelling questions with an evidential base and inferential rigor that have heretofore been impossible. At the same time, new infrastructure would make archaeological data accessible to researchers in other disciplines. We offer recommendations regarding data management and availability, cyberinfrastructure tool building, and social and cultural changes in the discipline. We propose funding synthetic case studies that would demonstrate archaeology’s ability to contribute to transdisciplinary research on long-term social dynamics and serve as a context for developing computational tools and analytical workflows that will be necessary to attack these questions. The case studies would explore how emerging research in computer science could empower this research and would simultaneously provide productive challenges for computer science research.
Field experiments were conducted between 2009 and 2011 in Ireland to compare the effects of soil tillage systems on the grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and nitrogen (N) uptake patterns of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) in a cool Atlantic climate. The four tillage treatments comprised conventional tillage in spring (CT), reduced tillage in autumn (RT A), reduced tillage in spring (RT S) and reduced tillage in autumn and spring (RT A+S). Each tillage system was evaluated with five levels of fertilizer N (0, 75, 105, 135 and 165 kg N/ha). Grain yield varied between years but CT had a significantly higher mean yield over the three years than the RT systems. There was no significant difference between the three RT systems. Tillage system had no significant effect on the grain yield response to fertilizer N. As a result of the higher yields achieved, the CT system had a higher NUE than the RT systems at all N rates. There was no significant difference in NUE between the three RT systems. Conventional tillage had significantly higher nitrogen uptake efficiency (NUpE) than RT A and a significantly higher nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUtE) than all three RT systems. Crop N uptake followed a similar pattern each year. Large amounts of N were accumulated during the vegetative growth stages while N was lost after anthesis. Increased N rates had a positive effect on N uptake in the early growth stages but tended to promote N loss later in the season. The CT system had the highest N uptake in the initial growth stages but its rate of uptake diminished at a faster rate than the RT systems as the season progressed. Tillage system had an inconsistent effect on crop N content during the later growth stages. On the basis of these results it is concluded that the use of non-inversion tillage systems for spring barley establishment in a cool oceanic climate remains challenging and in certain conditions may result in a reduction in NUE and lower and more variable grain yields than conventional plough-based systems.
Spatial data sets can be analysed by counting the number of objects in equally sized bins. The bin counts are related to the Pólya urn process, where coloured balls (for example, white or black) are removed from the urn at random. If there are insufficient white or black balls for the prescribed number of trials, the Pólya urn process becomes untenable. In this case, we modify the Pólya urn process so that it continues to describe the removal of volume within a spatial distribution of objects. We determine when the standard formula for the variance of the standard Pólya distribution gives a good approximation to the true variance. The variance quantifies an index for assessing whether a spatial point data set is at its most randomly distributed state, called the complete spatial randomness (CSR) state. If the bin size is an order of magnitude larger than the size of the objects, then the standard formula for the CSR limit is indicative of when the CSR state has been attained. For the special case when the object size divides the bin size, the standard formula is in fact exact.
For several years I vowed never to do an edited book again. But the experience of this project compelled me to break that vow. It began with the urge to write something on the changing face of proselytization in our globalizing world, accompanied by the realization that I could not do it alone. So I decided to organize a symposium on the topic for the International Association for the History of Religion's nineteenth World Congress in Tokyo in March 2005. Several of the authors traveled from around the world to participate in this most stimulating academic encounter, and we followed up with more sessions at the 2007 American Academy of Religion and American Anthropological Association meetings in San Diego and Washington, DC respectively. In the interim, the academic communitas was nurtured by various exchanges within the group and among authors, as well as by internet and media postings of stories relating to controversial aspects of proselytizing (Jean-François Mayer and his www.Proselytism.info website were an invaluable resource in this regard).
I am especially gratified that this volume contains chapters from several younger scholars from around the globe. Their work reflects intimate knowledge of the various localities where they reside and/or have conducted recent fieldwork. The project is also enriched by the contributions of several seasoned scholars who have been able to provide analyses of larger social and religious fields. My own interests in religious change and (re)affiliation in Africa date back three decades, but, like many of the authors in the collection, I am struck by how the legal and mass-mediated dimensions of these issues have increased.
The act of converting people to certain beliefs or values is highly controversial in today's postcolonial, multicultural world. Proselytization has been viewed by some as an aggressive act of political domination. Proselytization Revisited offers a comprehensive overview of the many arguments for and against proselytization in different regions and contexts. Proselytization is examined in the context of rights talk, globalisation and culture wars. The volume brings together essays demonstrating the global significance of proselytization, ranging from Christians in India to Turkish Islamic Movements and the Wiccan use of modern media technologies. The cross-cultural and multidisciplinary nature of this collection of essays provides a fresh perspective and the book will be of value to readers interested in the dynamic interaction of beliefs, ideas and cultures.
Contrary to the hopes and expectations of many, the neo-liberal trends of our global era have neither led to free markets for religion everywhere nor always to civility between religions in modern pluralistic states. In fact, the human rights revolution has arguably engendered new conflicts between local and foreign religious groups in a range of settings, not least Russia and India (Witte 2007). One of the most noticeable areas of contention pertains to the propagation of one's religion with the intent to convert others. From French schools to tsunami-affected areas, in Turkish streets and Indian state legislatures, accusations of aggressive or improper proselytizing activity now make global news. Legal scholar John Witte trenchantly describes the problem of proselytizing as “one of the great ironies of the democratic revolution of the modern world” (Witte 2007, 13).
The problems arising over proselytism were significant enough in the late 1990s that the Center for the Study of Law and Religion at Emory University—under the leadership of the aforementioned John Witte—embarked on a major project known as the “The Problem and Promise of Proselytism in the New Democratic World Order (1995–2000).” It was described as “an empirical and normative study of the new war for souls breaking out in various new democracies of the world between and among indigenous faiths and foreign proselytizing faiths”.