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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The purpose of this study is to identify and quantitatively describe environmental barriers to community engagement and activity participation for adults with stroke and low income. Repeated electronic surveys collected in real time will reduce recall bias and improve characterization of barriers. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: 20-30 community-dwelling adults with stroke and low income will be recruited for this pilot study. Inclusion criteria: > 1 month post stroke and evidence that they have the vision, literacy, and cognitive capacities to answer survey questions on a smart device. Exclusion criteria: severe aphasia, severe mental illness or substance abuse within 3 months, and ataxia. Participants will complete standardized assessments of daily activities, engagement in and perceptions about community activities, social support, and perceived environmental barriers. Participants then complete four surveys per day for 14 days using an app on an iPod Touch, reporting activities attempted and barriers encountered. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: This is the first study of this kind and is a work in progress. We anticipate that the environmental barriers reported will include physical (e.g. built structures, climate, and natural terrain), social (e.g. support or lack thereof; stigma), political (e.g. access to transportation; healthcare services), and technological barriers (e.g. difficulties with personal equipment and/or technologies such as elevators, ticket kiosks, etc.). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: An increased understanding of the barriers facing community-dwelling adults with stroke and low income will facilitate the development of culturally-appropriate and more accessible self-management programs to help this population re-engage in their communities and return to pre-stroke activities.
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are one of the most versatile and accessible classes of nanomaterials. Their chemical stability, ease of colloidal synthesis, surface functionalization, and plasmonic resonance—tunable from the visible through the near-infrared—have made AuNPs the metal nanoparticle of choice for many applications. This article summarizes the chemical synthesis of AuNPs, particularly gold nanorods, with a focus on recent developments in shape control and surface modifications. Current applications using the photothermal properties of AuNPs, as well as AuNP connections to biology and the environmental sciences, will be discussed.
Introduction: Emergency department (ED) opioid prescribing has been linked to long-term use and dependence. Anecdotally, significant opioid practice variability exists between physicians and institutions, but this is poorly defined. Our objective was to collate and analyze multicenter data looking at predictors of ED opioid use and to identify potential areas for opioid stewardship. Methods: We linked administrative and computerized physician order entry (CPOE) data from all four ED's within our municipality over a one-year period. Eligible patients included those with a Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS) pain complaint or an arrival numeric rating scale (NRS) pain score of greater than 3/10. Patients with missing demographic or chief complaint data were excluded. Multiple imputation was used for missing NRS pain scores. We performed descriptive analyses of opioid-treated and non-treated patients, followed by a multivariable logistic regression to identify predictors of ED opioid administration. Results: A total of 129,547 patients were studied. The mean age was 47.4 years and 55.4% were female. The median pain score was 6.6 in the no-opioid group and 8 in the opioid group. The most common pain categories were abdominal pain (23%), trauma (18.2%) and chest pain (15.3%). Overall, opioids were prescribed to 34% of patients. The most common CTAS score was CTAS 3 (44%), CTAS 1-2 42%) and CTAS 4-5 (13.9%). Multivariable predictors of opioid-use included the need for admission (adjusted OR 6.57; CI = 6.34-6.79), NRS pain score (aOR 1.24 per unit increase, CI 1.23-1.25), higher numerical CTAS score (aOR 0.89 per unit increase, CI 0.87-0.91), and chief complaints of back (aOR 7.69, CI 7.1-8.1), abdominal (aOR 5.9, CI 5.6-6.2), and flank pain (OR 3.8, CI 3.5-4). Oral opioids were prescribed in 39.8% of back pain presentations and 18.5% received IV opioids. Increasing age was a predictor but sex was not. There were significant institutional differences in opioid prescribing rates, with Hospital B being the least likely to prescribe opioids (aOR 0.82, CI 0.80-0.85) followed by Hospital C (aOR 0.83, CI 0.79-0.86) compared to the reference standard of Hospital A. Hospital D was most likely to prescribe opioids (aOR 1.32, CI 1.27-1.37). Conclusion: Predictors of ED opioid use were characterized using multicenter administrative data. Future research should seek to describe the physician- and site-level factors driving regional variation in opioid-based pain treatment.
Evaluate the time-course, severity and resolution patterns of adverse events (AEs) occurring with long-term aripiprazole treatment for irritability associated with autistic disorder.
Participants were treated with aripiprazole in a 52-week, open-label, flexibly dosed (2–15 mg/day) study. Subjects had either completed one of two 8-week randomised trials or were de novo. AEs with an incidence of ≥10% were evaluated by incidence, peak first onset, severity, percent resolved and time to resolution.
A total of 330 subjects entered open-label treatment; 199 completed 52 weeks. Mean dose for the population stabilised at around 10 mg/day after approximately 4 months. Thirteen AEs had an incidence of ≥10%; most were mild or moderate in severity. Vomiting, diarrhoea and headache had an early first onset and tended to resolve fairly quickly.
Sedation, fatigue and insomnia also appeared early and resolved in a majority of cases, but not as quickly. Increased appetite appeared early (followed by increased weight) and fewer weight-related AEs resolved. More than half of the subjects increased their weight by at least one percentile category rank; nevertheless, only a small proportion of subjects with normal baseline metabolic or glucose measures had a treatment-emergent, clinically relevant laboratory abnormality. Nasopharyngitis, upper respiratory infection, cough, nasal congestion and pyrexia all had peak onset at variable times during the study, resolving in nearly all cases, with short time to resolution.
AEs were mostly mild or moderate and of variable duration. Increased weight was observed.
Prior research on Hodgins’ (2008) typology of offenders with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) has revealed inconsistencies in the number of subgroups and the operationalization of the concept. This study addressed these inconsistencies by applying latent class analysis (LCA) based on the most frequently explored variables in prior research. This novel case-centred methodology identified similarities and differences between the subjects contained in the sample instead of the variables explored. The LCA was performed on 71 variables taken from data on a previously unstudied sample of 370 case histories of offenders with SSD in a centre for inpatient forensic therapies in Switzerland. Results were compared with Hodgins’ theoretically postulated patient typologies and confirm three separate homogeneous classes of schizophrenic delinquents. Previous inconsistencies and differences in operationalizations of the typology of offenders with SDD to be found in the literature are discussed.
To compare soft-tissue complications following implantation of different bone conduction hearing devices.
Adults who underwent implantation of different bone conduction hearing devices, between January 2008 and December 2016, were included in the study. Five groups were identified depending on the soft-tissue approach: (1) split-thickness skin flap with use of dermatome; (2) Sheffield ‘S’-shaped incision with skin thinning; (3) linear incision without skin thinning (hydroxyapatite-coated abutment); (4) ‘C’-shaped full-thickness incision for passive transcutaneous bone conduction hearing devices; and (5) post-aural incision for active transcutaneous bone conduction hearing devices. The main outcome measures were different soft-tissue complications.
The study comprised 120 patients (group 1 = 20 patients, group 2 = 35, group 3 = 35, group 4 = 20, and group 5 = 10). Soft tissue related problems were encountered in 55 per cent of patients from group 1, 26 per cent in group 2, 3 per cent in group 3, and 0 per cent in groups 4 and 5.
There was a reduction in soft tissue related complications with reduced soft-tissue handling. In addition, there was a shift from an initial skin-penetrating (percutaneous) approach to a non-skin-penetrating (transcutaneous) approach.
Non-tuberculous mycobacterium encephalitis is rare. Since 2013, a global outbreak of Mycobacterium chimaera infection has been attributed to point-source contamination of heater cooler units used in cardiac surgery. Disseminated M. chimaera infection has presented many unique challenges, including non-specific clinical presentations with delays in diagnosis, and a high mortality rate among predominantly immunocompetent adults. Here, we describe three patients with fatal disseminated Mycobacterium chimaera infection showing initially non-specific, progressively worsening neurocognitive decline, including confusion, delirium, depression and apathy. Autopsy revealed widespread granulomatous encephalitis of the cerebrum, brain stem and spinal cord, along with granulomatous chorioretinitis. Cerebral involvement and differentiation between mycobacterial granulomas and microangiopathic changes can be assessed best on MRI with contrast enhancement. The prognosis of M. chimaera encephalitis appears to be very poor, but might be improved by increased awareness of this new syndrome and timely antimicrobial treatment.
This presentation will enable the learner to:
1.Describe the clinical, radiological and neuropathological findings of Mycobacterium chimaera encephalitis
2.Be aware of this rare form of encephalitis, and explain its diagnosis, prognosis and management
Uranium isotopes (238U/235U) have emerged as a proxy to reconstruct the redox conditions of the Earth's oceans and atmosphere based upon the large isotopic fractionation between reduced U(IV) and oxidized U(VI). Variations in 238U/235U, particularly when recorded in carbonate sediments, can track global trends in marine oxygenation and de-oxygenation. It is unique from other proxies because reduction primarily occurs at the sediment-water interface, and this sensitivity makes U isotopes especially relevant for the habitability of benthic animals. This Element covers the background, methods, and case studies of this promising tool for understanding Earth's environmental transitions, as rapid development continues to refine the accuracy of interpretations of 238U/235U records.
Background: Diffuse low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are primary brain tumours with infiltrative, anisotropic growth related to surrounding white and grey matter structures. Deformation-based morphometry (DBM) is a simple and objective image analysis method that can identify areas of local volume change over time. In this study, we illustrate the use of DBM to study the local expansion patterns of LGGs monitored by serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: We developed an image processing pipeline optimized for the study of LGG growth involving the fusion of follow-up MRIs for a given patient into an average template space using nonlinear registration. The displacement maps derived from nonlinear registration were converted to Jacobian maps, which estimate local tissue expansion and contraction over time. Results: Our results demonstrate that neoplastic growth occurs primarily around the edges of the tumour while the lesion core and areas adjacent to obstacles, such as the skull, show no significant expansion. Regions of normal brain tissue surrounding the lesion show slight contraction over time, representing compression due to mass effect of the tumour. Conclusions: DBM is a useful tool to understand the long-term clinical course of individual tumours and identify areas of rapid growth, which may explain the current presentation and/or predict future symptoms.
We investigate the interstellar medium towards seven TeV gamma-ray sources thought to be pulsar wind nebulae using Mopra molecular line observations at 7 mm [CS(1–0), SiO(1–0, v = 0)], Nanten CO(1–0) data and the Southern Galactic Plane Survey/GASS Hi survey. We have discovered several dense molecular clouds co-located to these TeV gamma-ray sources, which allows us to search for cosmic rays coming from progenitor SNRs or, potentially, from pulsar wind nebulae. We notably found SiO(1–0, v = 0) emission towards HESS J1809–193, highlighting possible interaction between the adjacent supernova remnant SNR G011.0–0.0 and the molecular cloud at d ∼ 3.7 kpc. Using morphological features, and comparative studies of our column densities with those obtained from X-ray measurements, we claim a distance d ∼ 8.6 − 9.7kpc for SNR G292.2–00.5, d ∼ 3.5 − 5.6 kpc for PSR J1418–6058 and d ∼ 1.5 kpc for the new SNR candidate found towards HESS J1303–631. From our mass and density estimates of selected molecular clouds, we discuss signatures of hadronic/leptonic components from pulsar wind nebulae and their progenitor SNRs. Interestingly, the molecular gas, which overlaps HESS J1026–582 at d ∼ 5 kpc, may support a hadronic origin. We find however that this scenario requires an undetected cosmic-ray accelerator to be located at d < 10 pc from the molecular cloud. For HESS J1809–193, the cosmic rays which have escaped SNR G011.0–0.0 could contribute to the TeV gamma-ray emission. Finally, from the hypothesis that at most 20% the pulsar spin down power could be converted into CRs, we find that among the studied pulsar wind nebulae, only those from PSR J1809–1917 could potentially contribute to the TeV emission.
Simulation-based training has a fundamental role in medical education as it allows the learner to gain experience managing emergencies in a safe, controlled environment.
This 1-day course consisted of eight high-fidelity simulation scenarios, followed by a video-assisted debrief focusing on the technical and non-technical (communication skills, teamwork, leadership and situational awareness) aspects of managing ENT and head and neck emergencies.
Eight courses have run since June 2014. Post-course questionnaires demonstrated that candidates’ confidence scores in managing airway and head and neck emergencies increased following completion of the course (p < 0.0001).
This was the first fully immersive ENT simulation course developed in the region. The learning objectives for each scenario were mapped to the ENT Intercollegiate Surgical Curriculum Programme. Feedback from the course indicated a continued demand for this style of training, leading to its inclusion in the training calendar.
High-rate lithium ion batteries with long cycling lives can provide electricity grid stabilization services in the presence of large fractions of intermittent generators, such as photovoltaics. Engineering for high rate and long cycle life requires an appropriate selection of materials for both electrode and electrolyte and an understanding of how these materials degrade with use. High-rate lithium ion batteries can also facilitate faster charging of electric vehicles and provide higher energy density alternatives to supercapacitors in mass transport applications.
High-rate lithium ion batteries can play a critical role in decarbonizing our energy systems both through their underpinning of the transition to use renewable energy resources, such as photovoltaics, and electrification of transport. Their ability to be rapidly and frequently charged and discharged can enable this energy storage technology to play a key role in stabilizing future low-carbon electricity networks which integrate large fractions of intermittent renewable energy generators. This decarbonizing transition will require lithium ion technology to provide increased power and longer cycle lives at reduced cost. Rate performance and cycle life are ultimately limited by the materials used and the kinetics associated with the charge transfer reactions and ionic and electronic conduction. We review material strategies for electrode materials and electrolytes that can facilitate high rates and long cycle lives and discuss the important issues of cost, resource availability and recycling.
We present observations of 50 deg2 of the Mopra carbon monoxide (CO) survey of the Southern Galactic Plane, covering Galactic longitudes l = 300–350° and latitudes |b| ⩽ 0.5°. These data have been taken at 0.6 arcmin spatial resolution and 0.1 km s−1spectral resolution, providing an unprecedented view of the molecular clouds and gas of the Southern Galactic Plane in the 109–115 GHz J = 1–0 transitions of 12CO, 13CO, C18O, and C17O.
We present a series of velocity-integrated maps, spectra, and position-velocity plots that illustrate Galactic arm structures and trace masses on the order of ~106 M⊙ deg−2, and include a preliminary catalogue of C18O clumps located between l = 330–340°. Together with the information about the noise statistics of the survey, these data can be retrieved from the Mopra CO website and the PASA data store.
Background: The hippocampus can be divided longitudinally into the head, body, and tail; and unfolded medial-to-laterally into the subiculum, cornu ammonis (CA) sectors, and the dentate gyrus. Ultra-high field (≥ 7 Tesla; 7T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables submillimetric visualization of these hippocampal substructures which could be valuable for surgical targeting. Here, we assess the feasibility of using 7T MRI in conjunction with a novel computational unfolding method for image-based stereotactic targeting of hippocampal substructures. Methods: 53 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy were identified undergoing first-time implantation of the hippocampus. An image processing pipeline was created for computationally transforming post-operative electrode contact locations into our hippocampal coordinate system. Results: Of 178 implanted hippocampal electrodes (88 left; 49.4%), 25 (14.0%) were predominantly in the subiculum, 85 (47.8%) were in CA1, 23 (12.9%) were in CA2, 18 (10.1%) were in CA3/CA4, and 27 (15.2%) were in dentate gyrus. Along the longitudinal axis, hippocampal electrodes were most commonly implanted in the body (92; 51.7%) followed by the head (86; 48.3%). Conclusions: 7T MRI enables high-resolution anatomical imaging on the submillimeter scale in in vivo subjects. Here, we demonstrate the utility of 7T imaging for identifying the relative location of SEEG electrode implantations within hippocampal substructures for the invasive investigation of epilepsy.
Mechanical Turk has become an important source of subjects for social science experiments, providing a low-cost alternative to the convenience of using undergraduates while avoiding the expense of drawing fully representative samples. However, we know little about how the rates we pay to “Turkers” for participating in social science experiments affects their participation. This study examines subject performance using two experiments – a short survey experiment and a longer dynamic process tracing study of political campaigns – that recruited Turkers at different rates of pay. Looking at demographics and using measures of attention, engagement and evaluation of the candidates, we find no effects of pay rates upon subject recruitment or participation. We conclude by discussing implications and ethical standards of pay.
Intranasal splints have long been utilised as a post-operative adjunct in septoplasty, intended to reduce the risk of adhesions and haematoma formation, and to maintain alignment during healing.
A Medline literature review of the history and evolution of intranasal splint materials and designs was performed. Advantages and disadvantages of various splints are discussed.
Intranasal splints fashioned from X-ray film were first reported in 1955. Since then, a variety of materials have been utilised, including polyethylene coffee cup lids, samarium cobalt magnets and dental utility wax. Most contemporary splints are produced from silicon rubber or polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon). Designs have varied in thickness, flexibility, shape, absorption and the inclusion of built-in airway tubes. Future directions in splint materials and designs are discussed.
Intranasal splints have steadily evolved since 1955, with numerous novel innovations. Despite their simplicity, they play an important role in nasal surgery and will continue to evolve over time.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
HESS J1614–518 and HESS J1616–508 are two tera-electron volt γ-ray sources that are not firmly associated with any known counterparts at other wavelengths. We investigate the distribution of interstellar medium towards the tera-electron volt γ-ray sources using results from a 7-mm-wavelength Mopra study, the Mopra Southern Galactic Plane CO Survey, the Millimetre Astronomer’s Legacy Team-45 GHz survey and [C i] data from the HEAT telescope. Data in the CO(1–0) transition lines reveal diffuse gas overlapping the two tera-electron volt sources at several velocities along the line of sight, while observations in the CS(1–0) transition line reveal several interesting dense gas features. To account for the diffuse atomic gas, archival H i data was taken from the Southern Galactic Plane Survey. The observations reveal gas components with masses ~103 to 105 M⊙ and with densities ~102 to 103 cm−3 overlapping the two tera-electron volt sources. Several origin scenarios potentially associated with the tera-electron volt γ-ray sources are discussed in light of the distribution of the local interstellar medium. We find no strong convincing evidence linking any counterpart with HESS J1614–518 or HESS J1616–508.