Capsular type K54 of Klebsiella pneumoniae is associated with hypervirulence and we sought to discover the basis for this among isolates submitted to the UK reference laboratory between 2012 and 2017. Isolates were typed by variable number tandem repeat analysis, and capsular type and virulence elements sought by PCR. The most prevalent type found (15/31 isolates) corresponded to clonal group (CG) 29 and included five representatives carrying rmpA, rmpA2 (regulators of mucoid phenotype), iutA and iroD (from the aerobactin and salmochelin siderophore clusters) associated with virulence plasmids. These included isolate KpvK54, recovered from pus. The remaining isolates did not carry a virulence plasmid. We also noted 11 further related isolates, including NCTC 9159, not of capsular type K54, but nevertheless sometimes associated with sepsis and abscesses. Whole-genome sequencing showed that KpvK54 carried a large virulence plasmid and an ICEKp3-like structure carrying the yersiniabactin cluster, absent in NCTC 9159. Comparative chromosomal analysis with an additional four genomes showed that KpvK54 shared further genes with K1-ST23 hypervirulent isolates, and with LS358, a K54-ST29 isolate from liver abscess puncture fluid. While CG29 isolates displayed varying degrees of virulence, some, especially those with the virulence plasmid (all K54), were clearly associated with hypervirulence.