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Building construction is one of the fastest growing industries in India and it puts a huge burden on its limited natural resources. Fired clay bricks are one of the major constituent materials for the construction industry and it produces a huge amount of greenhouse gases. This research tries to highlight the use of alternative materials and how they can be modulated to suit the Indian construction industry. Bio-brick or agro-waste based brick is one such material that has the potential to be a sustainable and cost-effective solution. It acts as good heat and sound insulator and at the same time has overall negative carbon footprint. Additionally, it also acts as a deterrent to stubble burning, prevalent in northern India which causes severe air pollution. Due to its low density, it reduces dead load in high rise structures, thereby making RCC construction more economical. The study also highlights the use of Bio-brick in various areas of a structure. Another important objective of this research is to inspire and motivate architects, designers, researchers and builders to encourage and support the development of such sustainable and eco-sensitive material in construction industry.
Family education programs (FEPs) target caregiving-related psychological distress for carers of relatives/friends diagnosed with serious mental health conditions. While FEPs are efficacious in reducing distress, the mechanisms are not fully known. Peer group support and greater mental health knowledge are proposed to reduce carers' psychological distress by reducing stigmatising attitudes and self-blame, and strengthening carers' relationship with their relative.
Adult carers (n = 1016) who participated in Wellways Australia's FEP from 2009 to 2016 completed self-report questionnaires at the core program's start and end, during the consolidation period, and at a 6-month follow-up. Those who enrolled early completed questionnaires prior to a wait-list period. We used linear mixed-effects modelling to assess the program's effectiveness using a naturalistic wait-list control longitudinal design, and multivariate latent growth modelling to test a theory-based process change model.
While there was no significant change over the wait-list period, psychological distress, self-blame and stigmatising attitudes significantly decreased, and communication and relationship quality/feelings increased from the core program's start to its end. Changes were maintained throughout the consolidation period and follow-up. Peer group support significantly predicted the declining trajectory of distress. Peer group support and greater knowledge significantly predicted declining levels of self-blame and stigmatising attitudes, and increasing levels of communication.
This is the first study to quantitatively validate the mechanisms underlying the effect of FEPs on carers' psychological distress. Peer group support is key in modifying carers' appraisals of their friend/relatives' condition. Continued implementation of FEPs within mental health service systems is warranted.
Treatment for hoarding disorder is typically performed by mental health professionals, potentially limiting access to care in underserved areas.
We aimed to conduct a non-inferiority trial of group peer-facilitated therapy (G-PFT) and group psychologist-led cognitive–behavioural therapy (G-CBT).
We randomised 323 adults with hording disorder 15 weeks of G-PFT or 16 weeks of G-CBT and assessed at baseline, post-treatment and longitudinally (≥3 months post-treatment: mean 14.4 months, range 3–25). Predictors of treatment response were examined.
G-PFT (effect size 1.20) was as effective as G-CBT (effect size 1.21; between-group difference 1.82 points, t = −1.71, d.f. = 245, P = 0.04). More homework completion and ongoing help from family and friends resulted in lower severity scores at longitudinal follow-up (t = 2.79, d.f. = 175, P = 0.006; t = 2.89, d.f. = 175, P = 0.004).
Peer-led groups were as effective as psychologist-led groups, providing a novel treatment avenue for individuals without access to mental health professionals.
Declaration of interest
C.A.M. has received grant funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and travel reimbursement and speakers’ honoraria from the Tourette Association of America (TAA), as well as honoraria and travel reimbursement from the NIH for serving as an NIH Study Section reviewer. K.D. receives research support from the NIH and honoraria and travel reimbursement from the NIH for serving as an NIH Study Section reviewer. R.S.M. receives research support from the National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute of Aging, the Hillblom Foundation, Janssen Pharmaceuticals (research grant) and the Alzheimer's Association. R.S.M. has also received travel support from the National Institute of Mental Health for Workshop participation. J.Y.T. receives research support from the NIH, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute and the California Tobacco Related Research Program, and honoraria and travel reimbursement from the NIH for serving as an NIH Study Section reviewer. All other authors report no conflicts of interest.
Our study combines new geological and paleoecological information to reconstruct the glacial history and terrestrial paleoenvironments on Haida Gwaii during the advance phase of the Fraser glaciation (Marine Isotope Stage 2). At Cape Ball on eastern Graham Island, five accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon ages ranging from 23,200±280 to 26,650±390 14C yr BP (ca. 27,000–31,400 cal yr BP) record the earliest approach of mainland glaciers to Haida Gwaii. Abundant marine dinoflagellate cysts indicate isostatic depression by glacial ice in Hecate Strait to the east. At Mary Point on the north coast of Graham Island, similar outwash of a piedmont lobe advancing westward along Dixon Entrance preserves plant remains dated from 19,270±360 to 23,740±300 14C yr BP (22,500–28,600 cal yr BP). These sediments also contain marine indicators. Plant macrofossils, pollen, and invertebrates support the geological evidence of a proglacial environment under a colder-than-present macroclimate. Although some trees were likely present on Graham Island at this time, tundra-like plant communities dominated low-lying areas. A large area that appears to have been ice-free during this time is a portion of the continental shelf off the east coast of Moresby Island, referred to provisionally as the “Hecate Refugium.”
The present study sought to explicate the time-course of posttraumatic stress (PTS)-related attentional bias to threat (ABT) by examining differences in attention bias variability (ABV; a measure which accounts for the temporal dynamics of ABT). A dot-probe task with four presentation durations was used to capture both subliminal and supraliminal stages of processing. Task stimuli consisted of neutral and threat images. Attentional control (AC) was examined as a moderator of the relationship between PTSD and ABV. At an experimental session, participants (PTSD = 11, trauma control = 18) completed questionnaires, a modified dot-probe task, and a stimulus-response task measuring AC. Individuals in the PTSD group exhibited greater ABV compared to trauma control participants. AC moderated this relationship, with participants with PTSD and poor AC exhibiting significantly greater ABV than trauma-exposed control participants with poor AC. These effects remained significant after accounting for traditionally calculated ABT scores and variability on trials for which only neutral stimuli were present, thus ensuring that the observed effects were specific to the presence of threat stimuli and not merely a function of general variability in response times. Findings implicate AC as a buffering mechanism against threat-related attentional dyscontrol among those with PTSD. Clinical implications will be discussed.
This article examines scientific developments in China and India by comparing and contrasting the enterprises of natural history during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. From this perspective, the cases of China and India shared some similarities, but also exhibited important differences with respect to the conditions, ideologies, personnel, processes and strategies in scientific development. Two very large countries, with much left unexplored, attracted broad scientific interest in their flora and fauna from the early modern period; the interest intensified in the nineteenth century because of increasing accessibility to their interiors. However, the different historical situations that involved empire, nation, professionalization, geography and domestic and international politics helped shape the respective trajectories of scientific development in the two countries. Yet, despite their differences, China and India shared important similarities in the co-production of science and state, the global hierarchy of knowledge production, and the coloniality of power relations. This historical complexity also represented an important aspect of the global history of science, one that still bears poignancy and resonance in the contemporary world.
Writing the recent history of mental health services requires a conscious departure from the historiographical tropes of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries which have emphasised the experience of those identified (and legally defined) as lunatics and the social, cultural, political, medical and institutional context of their treatment. A historical narrative structured around rights (to health and liberty) is now complicated by the rise of new organising categories such as ‘costs’, ‘risks’, ‘needs’ and ‘values’. This paper, drawing on insights from a series of witness seminars attended by historians, clinicians and policymakers, proposes a programme of research to place modern mental health services in England and Wales in a richer historical context. Historians should recognise the fragmentation of the concepts of mental illness and mental health need, acknowledge the relationship between critiques of psychiatry and developments in other intellectual spheres, place the experience of the service user in the context of wider socio-economic and political change, understand the impacts of the social perception of ‘risk’ and of moral panic on mental health policy, relate the politics of mental health policy and resources to the general determinants of institutional change in British central and local government, and explore the sociological and institutional complexity of the evolving mental health professions and their relationships with each other and with their clients. While this is no small challenge, it is perhaps the only way to avoid the perpetuation of ‘single-issue mythologies’ in describing and accounting for change.
One hundred years ago in 1912 a very young Joseph Schumpeter published an epochal book, The Theory of Economic Development, in which he laid bare the mechanisms through which capitalism expands and renews itself. In the intervening century, the system he described so well has expanded worldwide, and is now drawing in China, India et al. Yet while Schumpeter's emphasis on innovation and creative destruction was entirely correct, his dismissal of follow-up strategies as “mere imitation” has not stood the test of time. First Japan, then Korea and Taiwan, and now China are all pursuing highly sophisticated strategies of resource leverage and knowledge appropriation that have enabled them to catch up with the industrial leaders (in the cases of Korea and Taiwan) or to be well embarked on the process, in China's case.
One hundred years later, Keun Lee finally provides a clear account of just how they are doing it. His book draws from his own and colleagues' empirical investigations of Korea's catch-up strategies, and engages with the wider literature on industrial and competitive dynamics. The book presents a sustained and original analysis of the catch-up processes pursued by Korea and Taiwan (with a discussion extended to China) demonstrating – using patent data and analysis – that successful catch-up involves strong attention to targeted knowledge capture and build-up of broad capabilities. Keun Lee demonstrates that countries that catch up do so by targeting specific technologies that are characterized by what he calls short cycle times – meaning that they have a high rate of product and process turnover (as measured in terms of patenting rates). Using the examples of Korea and Taiwan, Keun Lee shows how the two countries acquired their initial technological capabilities for the decade 1975 to 1985 in technologies such as automotives, steel, and chemicals (of lengthening cycle times) but passed their first transition, or turning point, in the mid 1980s when they started systematically targeting technologies with shorter cycle times (electronics, semiconductors, flat panel displays, IT) which required them to build broad capabilities in these fast-moving technologies.
Mass ejection in the form of winds or jets appears to be as fundamental to quasar activity as accretion. A convincing argument for radiation pressure driving this ionized outflow can be made within the dust sublimation radius. Beyond, radiation pressure is even more ubiquitous, as high energy photons from the central engine can now push on dust grains. This physics underlies the dusty-wind model for the putative obscuring torus. Specifically, the dusty wind in our model is first launched from the outer accretion disk as a magneto-centrifugal wind and then accelerated and shaped by radiation pressure from the central continuum. Such a wind can plausibly account for both the necessary obscuring medium to explain the observed ratio of broad-to-narrow-line quasars and the mid-infrared emission commonly seen in quasar spectral energy distributions.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
The current study determined whether the pre-implantation conceptus modified endometrial fatty acid concentrations. Oestrus was synchronized in 14 mature lactating cows and embryos were transferred on day 7. Cows were slaughtered 10 d later, with each uterine horn flushed, the pre-implantation conceptus located, and inter-caruncular endometrial tissue collected from the gravid horn (containing the pre-implantation conceptus) and non-gravid horn. Endometrial fatty acid concentrations in the gravid and non-gravid horn were compared using linear models in restricted maxiumum likelihood. Investigations of the correlations among selected fatty acids and trophoblast weight or uterine fluid interferon-tau (IFN-τ) concentrations were also undertaken. The presence of the pre-implantation conceptus had relatively minor effects on endometrial fatty acid concentrations, but the ω6:ω3 ratio was greater and concentrations of stearic and oleic acid were slightly increased in the gravid horn. In the gravid horn, a negative linear relationship between the concentration of arachidonic acid and conceptus weight and IFN-τ concentration in the uterine luminal fluid were observed. In contrast, there was a positive relationship between concentrations of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid in the non-gravid horn and conceptus weight. In conclusion, the presence of the pre-implantation conceptus appears to modulate endometrial fatty acids, as indicated by the differences in endometrial fatty acid concentrations in the gravid and non-gravid uterine horns. The physiological implication of these local effects of the pre-implantation conceptus, on reproductive success requires further investigation.