Modern logic emerged in the period from 1879 to the Second World War. In the post-war period what we know as classical first-order logic largely replaced traditional syllogistic logic in introductory textbooks, but the main development has been simply enormous growth: The publications of the Association for Symbolic Logic, the main professional organization for logicians, became ever thicker. While 1950 saw volume 15 of the Journal of Symbolic Logic, about 300 pages of articles and reviews and a six‑page member list, 2000 saw volume 65 of that journal, over 1,900 pages of articles, plus volume 6 of the Bulletin of Symbolic Logic, 570 pages of reviews and a sixty‑page member list. Of so large a field, the present survey will have to be ruthlessly selective, with no coverage of the history of informal or inductive logic, or of philosophy or historiography of logic, and slight coverage of applications. Remaining are five branches of pure, formal, deductive logic, four being the branches of mathematical logic recognized in Barwise 1977, first of many handbooks put out by academic publishers: set theory, model theory, recursion theory, proof theory. The fifth is philosophical logic, in one sense of that label, otherwise called non-classical logic, including extensions of and alternatives to textbook logic. For each branch, a brief review of pre‑war background will be followed by a few highlights of subsequent history. The references will be a mix of primary and secondary sources, landmark papers and survey articles.
§1. I propose to address not so much Gödel's own philosophy of mathematics as the philosophical implications of his work, and especially of his incompleteness theorems. Now the phrase “philosophical implications of Gödel's theorem” suggests different things to different people. To professional logicians it may summon up thoughts of the impact of the incompleteness results on Hilbert's program. To the general public, if it calls up any thoughts at all, these are likely to be of the attempt by Lucas  and Penrose  to prove, if not the immortality of the soul, then at least the non-mechanical nature of mind. One goal of my present remarks will be simply to point out a significant connection between these two topics.
But let me consider each separately a bit first, starting with Hilbert. As is well known, though Brouwer's intuitionism was what provoked Hilbert's program, the real target of Hilbert's program was Kronecker's finitism, which had inspired objections to the Hilbert basis theorem early in Hilbert's career. (See the account in Reid .) But indeed Hilbert himself and his followers (and perhaps his opponents as well) did not initially perceive very clearly just how far Brouwer was willing go beyond anything that Kronecker would have accepted. Finitism being his target, Hilbert made it his aim to convince the finitist, for whom no mathematical statements more complex than universal generalizations whose every instance can be verified by computation are really meaningful, of the value of “meaningless” classical mathematics as an instrument for establishing such statements.
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