Theory on high-frequency traders (HFTs) predicts that market liquidity for a security decreases in the number of HFTs trading the security. We test this prediction by studying a new Canadian stock exchange, Alpha, that experienced the entry of 11 HFTs over 4 years. We find that bid–ask spreads on Alpha converge to those at the Toronto Stock Exchange as more HFTs trade on Alpha. Effective and realized spreads for non-HFTs improve as HFTs enter the market. To explain the contrast with theory, which models the HFT as a price competitor, we provide evidence more consistent with HFTs fitting a quantity-competitor framework.