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It has been reported that television (TV) viewing is associated with childhood obesity in Western countries. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between obesity and eating habits while watching TV among primary-school children in the Middle East.
Children were recruited from primary schools of four educational districts in Shiraz, Iran. Anthropometric indices of mass (kg) and height (m) were measured, and BMI (percentile) was calculated. Demographic characteristics, TV viewing behaviours and physical activity data were collected from parents during face-to-face interviews and a 3d dietary record was completed.
Children (n 607) aged 6–10 years.
Mean (sd) age of children was 8·16 (1·37) years, of whom 9·1 and 8·4 % were overweight and obese, respectively. Children who spent ≥2 h watching TV on weekdays (OR=1·99; 95 % CI 1·09, 3·60) and weekend days (OR=1·86; 95 % CI 1·01, 3·43) had higher odds of being obese, even after adjusting for physical activity. Children who ate breakfast while watching TV had higher odds of being overweight v. those who did not watch TV while eating breakfast (OR=2·70; 95 % CI 1·02, 7·60). There were no associations between TV viewing during other meals (lunch and dinner) and overweight/obesity.
TV viewing for ≥2 h daily increases the risk of being obese in Iranian children aged 6–10 years, independent of physical activity. Further, breakfast consumption while watching TV may increase the risk of overweight/obesity, independent of total TV viewing time.
Vegetarian diets contain various anti-inflammatory components. We aimed to investigate the effects of vegetarianism on inflammatory biomarkers when compared with omnivores.
Systematic review and meta-analysis.
Literature search was conducted in Science Direct, Proquest, MEDLINE and Google Scholar up to June 2016. Summary estimates and corresponding 95 % CI were derived via the DerSimonian and Laird method using random effects, subgroup analyses were run to find the source of heterogeneity and a fixed-effect model examined between-subgroup heterogeneity.
Studies were included if they evaluated effects of any type of vegetarianism compared with omnivores on circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers. No restriction was made in terms of language or the date of study publications.
Eighteen articles were included. Pooled effect size showed no difference in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in vegetarians v. omnivores (Hedges’ g=−0·15; 95 % CI −0·35, 0·05), with high heterogeneity (I2=75·6 %, P<0·01). A subgroup analysis by minimum duration of vegetarianism showed that a minimum duration of 2 years vegetarianism was associated with lower hs-CRP levels v. omnivores (Hedges’ g=−0·29; 95 % CI −0·59, 0·01), with moderate heterogeneity (I2=68·9 %, P<0·01). No significant effect was found in studies using a minimum duration of 6 months of vegetarianism, with low heterogeneity. Vegetarianism was associated with increased IL-6 concentrations (0·21 pg/ml; 95 % CI 0·18, 0·25), with no heterogeneity (I2=0·0 %, P=0·60).
The meta-analysis provides evidence that vegetarianism is associated with lower serum concentrations of hs-CRP when individuals follow a vegetarian diet for at least 2 years. Further research is necessary to draw appropriate conclusions regarding potential associations between vegetarianism and IL-6 levels. A vegetarian diet might be a useful approach to manage inflammaging in the long term.
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