High-fat diet is a major causative factor of overweight and obesity, which are associated with an increased risk of neuropsychiatric diseases, such as anxiety and depression. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of bamboo extract (BEX) on anxiety- and depression-like neurobehaviours in mice treated with a high-fat diet. Male mice with CD-1 genetic background were treated for 2 months with either a standard or a high-fat diet (10 or 45 % energy from fat, respectively), with or without the BEX supplement (11 g dry mass per 17 MJ). The anxiety levels of mice were evaluated using open-field and hole-board tests, and depression was measured using the force-swimming test. The anxiety responses of the animals were found significantly increased after the high-fat diet treatment, and this elevation was effectively abolished by the BEX supplement. The high-fat diet seemed to have an anti-depressive effect in mice at the tested time point, but the effect of the BEX supplement on the depression level of the animals was not conclusive. The high-fat diet significantly decreased total glutathione content in the blood while the BEX supplement increased glutathione oxidation. In summary, the present study shows that decreased total glutathione concentration in the blood co-occurred with a high-fat treatment, high anxiety level and low depression level in mice, and when supplemented in a high-fat diet, BEX had an anxiolytic effect in mice.