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The Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR), initiated in 2001, has now become the largest twin registry in Asia. From 2015 to 2018, the CNTR continued to receive Chinese government funding and had recruited 61,566 twin-pairs by 2019 to study twins discordant for specific exposures such as environmental factors, and twins discordant for disease outcomes or measures of morbidity. Omic data, including genetics, genomics, metabolomics, and proteomics, and gut microbiome will be tested. The integration of omics and digital technologies in public health will advance our understanding of precision public health. This review introduces the updates of the CNTR, including study design, sample size, biobank, zygosity assessment, advances in research and future systems epidemiologic research.
Animate stimuli are remembered better than inanimate stimuli. The proximate mechanism of this preferential retrieval of animate stimuli has not been clarified. The present study proposes an inhibitory control explanation for the advantage of the memory of animate stimuli. The retrieval practice paradigm is employed to examine the role of inhibitory control in animacy effect in two experiments. The results of Experiment 1 revealed a strong inhibitory effect on animate stimuli but was not reliable on inanimate stimuli, suggesting that animacy effect is not due to the insensitivity to the inhibitory control. The results of Experiment 2 show the absence of animacy effect when animacy is designed as a between-subject variable, suggesting that the memory of artifact may be influenced by the memory of animals. These findings are discussed using the inhibitory control account and suggest that the role of inhibitory control in animacy effect is to selectively inhibit the memory of other categories in order to facilitate the retrieval of animals, indicating that inhibitory control is, in part, responsible for the animacy effect.
Herein, in order to research the crystalline behaviors of cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine-aluminum (HM-Al) composites in solvents, the modified attachment energy model was applied to predict the morphologies of HMX in vacuum, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and ethanol. Then HMX-Al composites with Al coated and noncoated were prepared via solvent–nonsolvent method, and the morphologies were characterized. Results show that HMX interacts with DMSO and ethanol mainly via van der Waals force and electrostatic force. HMX grows into polyhedral crystals in two solvents. However, the shapes and the crystalline surface area distributions of the polyhedrons are different for two solvents. There are many aluminum particles embedded in HMX crystals of HMX-Al composite particles prepared via solvent–nonsolvent method, but Al particles cannot embed in HMX crystals in the existence of fluoropolymer. The crystal morphology predicted is consistent with the experimental results.
The timing of the Holocene summer monsoon maximum (HSMM) in northeastern China has been much debated and more quantitative precipitation records are needed to resolve the issue. In the present study, Holocene precipitation and temperature changes were quantitatively reconstructed from a pollen record from the sediments of Tianchi Crater Lake in northeastern China using a plant functional type-modern analogue technique (PFT-MAT). The reconstructed precipitation record indicates a gradual increase during the early to mid-Holocene and a HSMM at ~5500–3100 cal yr BP, while the temperature record exhibits a divergent pattern with a marked rise in the early Holocene and a decline thereafter. The trend of reconstructed precipitation is consistent with that from other pollen records in northeastern China, confirming the relatively late occurrence of the HSMM in the region. However, differences in the onset of the HSMM within northeastern China are also evident. No single factor appears to be responsible for the late occurrence of the HSMM in northeastern China, pointing to a potentially complex forcing mechanism of regional rainfall in the East Asian monsoon region. We suggest that further studies are needed to understand the spatiotemporal pattern of the HSMM in the region.
The microstructure evolution of the directionally solidified NiAl–Cr(Mo) planar eutectic lamellar structure was studied at 1150 °C and times of up to 400 h. The planar eutectic lamellar structure is obtained at the withdrawal rate range of 2.5–7.5 μm/s. The interlamellar spacing decreases gradually with increasing the withdrawal rate. The lamellar termination (like angular or smooth) commonly exists in the as-DS alloy. After high temperature treatment, the lamellar structure at 2.5 μm/s (interlamellar spacing, 3.7 μm) is almost stable, only a little migration of termination occurs at 400 h. When the withdrawal rate increases to 4.5 μm/s, the coarsening and migration of termination occur at 200 h. The adjacently coarsened terminations assemble when the coarsening processes to a certain degree, thus resulting in the formation of the blocky Cr(Mo) phase. Similarly, the above instable phenomenon occurs at 7.5 μm/s. The relevant instability mechanisms are discussed.
Mastery of strengthening strategies to achieve high-capacity anodes for lithium-ion batteries can shed light on understanding the nature of diffusion-induced stress and offer an approach to use submicro-sized materials with an ultrahigh capacity for large-scale batteries. Here, we report solute strengthening in a series of silicon (Si)–germanium (Ge) alloys. When the larger solute atom (Ge) is added to the solvent atoms (Si), a compressive stress is generated in the vicinity of Ge atoms. This local stress field interacts with resident dislocations and subsequently impedes their motion to increase the yield stress in the alloys. The addition of Ge into Si substantially improves the capacity retention, particularly in Si0.50Ge0.50, aligning with literature reports that the Si/Ge alloy showed a maximum yield stress in Si0.50Ge0.50. In situ X-ray diffraction studies on the Si0.50Ge0.50 electrode show that the phase change undergoes three subsequent steps during the lithiation process: removal of surface oxide layer, formation of cluster-size Lix(Si,Ge), and formation of crystalline Li15(Si,Ge)4. Furthermore, the lithiation process starts from higher index facets, i.e., (220) and (311), then through the low index facet (111), suggesting the orientation-dependence of the lithiation process in the Si0.50Ge0.50 electrode.
A fully discrete A-ϕ finite element scheme for a nonlinear model of type-II superconductors is proposed and analyzed. The nonlinearity is due to a field dependent conductivity with the regularized power-law form. The challenge of this model is the error estimate for the nonlinear term under the time derivative. Applying the backward Euler method in time discretisation, the well-posedness of the approximation problem is given based on the theory of monotone operators. The fully discrete system is derived by standard finite element method. The error estimate is suboptimal in time and space.
A stalagmite with high 238U content from Yangkou Cave, China, revealed the evolution of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) between 49.1 and 59.5 ka, and the δ18O values recorded Dansgaard/Oeschger (D/O) events 13–17. The Yangkou record shows a relatively gradual transition into the D/O 14 and 16 events. The discrepancy between the abrupt and gradual transitions of D/O 14 in the records from northern and southern China, respectively, suggests different responses of the ASM to climate changes in the high northern latitudes. The higher resolution δ18O record and more precise 230Th dating indicate that the timing of D/O 14 and 17 in the Hulu records at 53 and 58 ka should be shifted to 54.3 and 59 ka, respectively. The gradual strengthening of the ASM at the onsets of D/O 16 and 14 in our record is different from the abrupt temperature rise in the northern high latitudes. Some other factors must contribute to this relatively gradual ASM change in southern China, but the actual reason is still unknown.
Personal, multifunctional, and smart electronic devices/systems are indispensable components of the internet of things for modern information collection and exchange, which play a key role in facilitating the development of human civilization. Traditional technique for powering these sensor nodes mainly relies on batteries, which may not be favorable owing to the limited battery lifetime, large sensor population, wide distribution, as well as the potential of environmental detriment. Extricated from external power sources, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) based active sensors have been extensively spread into a variety of fields for self-powered high-performance sensing, featured as being lightweight, extremely cost-effective, and environmentally friendly. In this article, current progress of TENGs as smart sensors for self-powered touch detection, vibration and acoustic sensing, biomedical applications, as well as human-machine interfacing, has been comprehensively reviewed, from aspects of materials usage, device fabrication to practical applications. The latest representative achievements regarding the TENG based self-powered sensing systems were also systematically presented. In the end, some perspectives and challenges for the TENG based self-powered smart sensors were also summarized.
We construct modulus-based synchronous multisplitting iteration methods to solve a large implicit complementarity problem on parallel multiprocessor systems, and prove their convergence. Numerical results confirm our theoretical analysis and show that these new methods are efficient.
Zr–Co–Al alloys possess prospects of wide applications in the field of nuclear reactor cladding materials and biomedical materials. (Zr0.5Co0.5)100−xAlx (x = 1, 2, 3 at.%) alloys were prepared by the water-cooling copper mold suction casting technique, and the microstructure and compression mechanical properties of the alloys were investigated. The results showed that the as-cast Zr–Co–Al alloys mainly consisted of the B2 ZrCo phase with columnar or equiaxed grains and a small quantity of intermetallic compounds, i.e., Co2Zr and Zr2Co. The yield strength of Zr–Co–Al alloys increased with increasing Al content, but the plasticity decreased at the same time. The as-cast Zr49.5Co49.5Al1 alloy attained the highest ultimate compression strength up to 2.57 ± 0.02 GPa and the largest compression strain up to ∼54.7%. The B2 to B33 martensitic transformation that occurred during the deformation process was investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy. It was concluded that the enhanced plasticity of Zr49.5Co49.5Al1 alloy can be attributed to the transformation induced plasticity associated with the deformation-induced martensitic transformation.
The composite Li-ion battery anode material of Fe2SiO4, Fe3O4, Fe3C (Fe-Si-O) and carbon nanotubes was prepared by a simple one-step reaction between ferrocene and tetraethyl orthosilicate. When cycled at 100 mA g-1, this material exhibited ever-increasing capacities and reached 588 mAh g-1 at the 280th cycle. At 500 mA g-1, a reversible capacity of 350 mAh g-1 was retained for 600 cycles. Compared with Fe3O4 materials, the Fe-Si-O/CNT exhibited superior long-term high-rate performance, which could mainly result from its enhanced stability and conductivities by introducing silicates and CNTs during the one-step synthesis.
This paper presents an extension of the formulation of wave propagation in transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes in the case of metallic circular waveguides filled with anisotropic metamaterials. The determined higher-order modes have been analyzed and exploited to the design of filters. Among the particularities of anisotropic material, the backward waves can propagate below the cut-off frequency. The numerical results for TE and TM modes have been compared with theoretical predictions. Good agreements were obtained. We analyzed a periodic structure containing waveguides filled with anisotropic metamaterial using the mode-matching technique. By using modal analysis, our approach reduced considerably the computation time compared to HFSS.
We suggest that the broad-line regions (BLRs) of QSOs with broad emissionlines (BALs) are expanding, i.e., the clouds are undergoing radial outflow, as illustrated simply in Fig. 1. At least the following observational facts can be explained:
1.Optical observations show that some moderate and high-redshift QSOs have BALs. The number of these QSOs is about 3–10% of all QSOs (Foltz et al. 1990). One can see in Fig. 2 that very low-redshift QSOs have no BALs.
2.Almost all BAL QSOs exhibit zabs < zem.
3.High-resolution observations reveal that the widths of the broad absorption lines are narrower than that of the corresponding emission line for all BAL QSOs, i.e. Δλ ab < Δλ em.
From November 24 to December 10, 2013, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army Navy [PLA(N)] hospital ship Peace Ark was deployed to the Leyte Gulf in the Philippines to provide humanitarian medical relief in Tacloban after Typhoon Haiyan. The purpose of this study was to assess the radiological services aboard the ship to provide guidance for future missions.
A retrospective review was performed on a cohort of 109 patients who underwent digital radiography (DR) and 59 patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) scans during a 16-day period during a humanitarian medical relief mission to the Philippines. Patient demographics, DR findings, and CT findings were analyzed.
The mean age of the 109 DR patients was 39.7 years for the 64 males and 43.7 years for the 45 females. A total of 148 DR examinations were performed of the chest (n=109), extremities (n=35), and spine (n=4). The mean age of the 59 CT patients was 43.8 years for the 32 males and 49.1 years for the 27 females. A total of 72 CT scans were performed of the head and neck (n=36), thorax (n=24), abdomen (n=5), spine (n=4), and extremities (n=3). The imaging findings mainly included disaster-related and non-disaster-related fractures, pulmonary tuberculosis, pulmonary infection, acute brain infarction, intracranial hematoma, and occupying lesions.
Analysis of radiological services during a humanitarian medical relief mission to the Philippines provided meaningful information for future humanitarian medical relief missions. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:16–19)
Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is known to be a natural antioxidant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cryoprotective effect of ALA on the motility of boar spermatozoa and its antioxidant effect on boar spermatozoa during freezing–thawing. Different concentrations (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 or 10.0 mg/ml) of ALA were added to the extender used to freeze boar semen, and the effects on the quality and endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities of frozen–thawed spermatozoa were assessed. The results indicated that the addition of ALA to the extender resulted in a higher percentage of motile spermatozoa post-thaw (P < 0.05). The activities of superoxide dismutase, lactate dehydrogenase, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and catalase improved after adding ALA to the extender (P < 0.05). Artificial insemination results showed that pregnancy rate and litter size were significantly higher at 6.0 mg/ml in the ALA group than in the control group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, ALA conferred a cryoprotective capacity to the extender used for boar semen during the process of freezing–thawing, and the optimal concentration of ALA for the frozen extender was 6.0 mg/ml.