Jaguariaíva 1 is a sandstone rockshelter located in Jaguariaíva, Paraná State, Brazil, with rock art on the surface of the walls and ceiling. A stratigraphic analysis of the soil within the shelter showed six occupational layers and a superficial disturbed layer with evidence from the end of the 19th century. The establishment of a rock-art chronology became possible using fallen painted rock sections incorporated into three sedimentary levels underlying this rock shelter. These show superimpositions of several pictures of differently sized animals, such as deer, and lattice motifs, which are generally associated with the Planalto rock art tradition. The chronological study was performed based on radiocarbon (14C) analysis of charcoal collected from six excavated subsurface archaeological contexts. The two oldest layers, associated with hunters and gatherers of the Umbu tradition, were dated to 7680–7516 cal BP and 6913–6656 cal BP. There are four occupational layers from ceramists and farmers related to the south Jê linguistic family, and linked to the Itararé-Taquara archaeological tradition: layer 3 linked to the oldest of such occupation, dated to 3058–2796 cal BP, followed by layer 4, dated to 2080–1701 cal BP. Layers 5 and 6, dated to 1995–1526 cal BP and 540–152 cal BP, respectively.