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Dicamba and glufosinate are among the few effective postemergence herbicides to control multiple herbicide-resistant weeds in southeastern U.S. cotton and soybean production. Field studies were conducted to determine the effect of weed size and the application of dicamba and glufosinate individually, mixed, or sequentially on common ragweed, goosegrass, large crabgrass, ivyleaf morningglory, Palmer amaranth, and sicklepod control. Sequential herbicide treatments were applied 7 d after the initial treatment. The tested weeds sizes predominantly did not affect weed control. Control of broadleaf weed species with sequential herbicide applications never increased compared to the initial herbicide application. Two applications of glufosinate and/or dicamba + glufosinate controlled grasses better than one application. The order of the herbicides in the sequential applications did not affect broadleaf species control, whereas herbicide order was important for the control of grass weeds. Grass weed control was higher when glufosinate was applied before dicamba. Dicamba + glufosinate additively controlled the weeds, except for goosegrass, for which control was less for dicamba + glufosinate compared to glufosinate alone. The results of the experiment provide evidence that dicamba and glufosinate applied individually, mixed, and sequentially are effective on common row crop weeds found in the southeastern United States, but the species present may dictate how the herbicides are applied together.
Best practice requires the treating physician to understand the needs and hopes of his/her patient, particularly in relation to pregnancy and childbirth preferences. This is even more necessary for women with Severe Mental Illness (SMI) because of the complicated decisions they face balancing the need to continue medication in pregnancy to prevent relapse against any possible harm to the foetus. Objectives: To explore what women themselves view as most important when discussing pregnancy and childbirth with psychiatrists and what barriers there are to a) having a meaningful conversation and b) achieving optimum outcomes. Qualitative methods were used to analyse the data from in-depth interviews with 21 women, recruited from a South London NHS organisation (76%) and the UK’s national bipolar charity (24%). The views of 25 health professionals, including 19 psychiatrists, were also collected and analysed. Results: Many themes emerged but principally women wanted: information, continuity of care, better training for health professionals, to co-produce a detailed care plan, access to a Mother and Baby Unit, peer support and more research on medications in pregnancy. Conclusions: This study highlighted the importance of understanding women’s needs and fears and giving them the necessary information to make the difficult decisions that face them. Such understanding is likely to lead to more positive therapeutic relationships and better long-term outcomes.
In an effort to confront climate change and other crises of extractive capitalism, scholars of US literature are turning their analytical tools toward an area of study previously dominated by scientists and policy makers: energy. Petroleum, coal, nuclear energy, whale oil, wood, lard, and myriad other energy sources are among the subjects now under study by the emerging field of the energy humanities. The nineteenth century holds a special place in the study of energy, since it was at this time that, according to Cara New Daggett, the concept of “energy” emerged in the form in which it is widely understood in the twenty-first century. In the nineteenth century, the term “energy” came to refer both to fuel sources like oil or coal and to the concept of work itself. The “birth of energy” came about both in response to and because of the advent of intensive fossil fuel consumption in Great Britain and the United States that began in the nineteenth century and has accelerated unabated and spread worldwide, albeit unevenly, ever since.
Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are common following traumatic stress exposure (TSE). Identification of individuals with PTSS risk in the early aftermath of TSE is important to enable targeted administration of preventive interventions. In this study, we used baseline survey data from two prospective cohort studies to identify the most influential predictors of substantial PTSS.
Self-identifying black and white American women and men (n = 1546) presenting to one of 16 emergency departments (EDs) within 24 h of motor vehicle collision (MVC) TSE were enrolled. Individuals with substantial PTSS (⩾33, Impact of Events Scale – Revised) 6 months after MVC were identified via follow-up questionnaire. Sociodemographic, pain, general health, event, and psychological/cognitive characteristics were collected in the ED and used in prediction modeling. Ensemble learning methods and Monte Carlo cross-validation were used for feature selection and to determine prediction accuracy. External validation was performed on a hold-out sample (30% of total sample).
Twenty-five percent (n = 394) of individuals reported PTSS 6 months following MVC. Regularized linear regression was the top performing learning method. The top 30 factors together showed good reliability in predicting PTSS in the external sample (Area under the curve = 0.79 ± 0.002). Top predictors included acute pain severity, recovery expectations, socioeconomic status, self-reported race, and psychological symptoms.
These analyses add to a growing literature indicating that influential predictors of PTSS can be identified and risk for future PTSS estimated from characteristics easily available/assessable at the time of ED presentation following TSE.
Non-physician performed point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is emerging as a diagnostic adjunct with the potential to enhance current practice. The scope of POCUS utility is broad and well-established in-hospital, yet limited research has occurred in the out-of-hospital environment. Many physician-based studies expound the value of POCUS in the acute setting as a therapeutic and diagnostic tool. This study utilized a scoping review methodology to map the literature pertaining to non-physician use of POCUS to improve success of peripheral intravenous access (PIVA), especially in patients predicted to be difficult to cannulate.
Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE, and PubMed were searched from January 1, 1990 through April 15, 2021. A thorough search of the grey literature and reference lists of relevant articles was also performed to identify additional studies. Articles were included if they examined non-physician utilization of ultrasound-guided PIVA (USGPIVA) for patients anticipated to be difficult to cannulate.
A total of 158 articles were identified. A total of 16 articles met the inclusion criteria. The majority of participants had varied experience with ultrasound, making accurate comparison difficult. Training and education were non-standardized, as was the approach to determining difficult intravenous access (DIVA). Despite this, the majority of the studies demonstrated high first attempt and overall success rates for PIVA performed by non-physicians.
Non-physician USGPIVA appears to be a superior method for PIVA when difficulty is anticipated. Additional benefits include reduced requirement for central venous catheter (CVC) or intraosseous (IO) needle placement. Paramedics, nurses, and emergency department (ED) technicians are able to achieve competence in this skill with relatively little training. Further research is required to explore the utility of this practice in the out-of-hospital environment.
Hospice patients and caregivers who are members of sexual and gender minority groups (i.e., LGBTQ+) have reported experiencing unmet needs at end of life (EOL). Negative experiences often stem from challenging interactions with healthcare providers due to ineffective or poor communication and providers’ heteronormative assumptions and biases. Few studies, however, examine hospice care team (HCT) providers’ knowledge, experience, and opinions related to EOL care for LGBTQ+ patients and caregivers despite this being identified as a gap in competency and education. We sought to examine HCT providers’ perceptions regarding (1) awareness of LGBTQ+ patients and caregivers; (2) knowledge of specific or unique needs; and (3) opinions on best care and communication practices.
Six focus groups conducted with HCT providers (n = 48) currently delivering hospice care in three US states were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data were content coded (κ = 0.77), aggregated by topical categories, and descriptively summarized.
Participants were mostly white and non-Hispanic (n = 43, 89.6%), cisgender female (n = 42, 87.5%), heterosexual (n = 35, 72.9%), and religious (n = 33, 68.8%); they averaged 49 years of age (range 26–72, SD = 11.66). Awareness of LGBTQ+ patients and caregivers depended on patient or caregiver self-disclosure and contextual cues; orientation and gender identity data were not routinely collected. Many viewed being LGBTQ+ as private, irrelevant to care, and not a basis for people having specific or unique EOL needs because they saw EOL processes as universal, and believed that they treat everyone equally. Providers were more comfortable with patients of lesbian or gay orientation and reported less comfort and limited experience caring for transgender and gender-diverse patients or caregivers.
Significance of results
Many HCT members were unaware of specific issues impacting the EOL experiences of LGBTQ+ patients and caregivers, or how these experiences may inform important care and communication needs at EOL.
To design a meditation protocol and test its feasibility, acceptability and efficacy in conjunction with yoga training (YT) for persons with schizophrenia (SZ).
The meditation protocol consisted of Anapana (observing normal respiration) and Yoga Nidra (supine, restful awareness). In a single-blind randomised controlled trial, medicated and clinically stable outpatients diagnosed with SZ were randomised to receive treatment as usual (TAU), TAU augmented with YT or TAU augmented with meditation and yoga training (MYT) for 3 weeks (N = 145). Acceptability, clinical, social and cognitive functions were assessed after 3-week and 3-month post-randomisation using within-group and between-group analyses with repeated measures multivariate tests.
No group-wise differences in compliance, study discontinuation, major/serious side effects or adverse events were noted. For six assessed clinical variables, the direction of changes were in the desired direction and the effect sizes were greater in the MYT group compared with the TAU group at both time points. Changes in social function variables were greater at 3 months than at 3 weeks. Nominally significant improvement in individual cognitive domains were noted in all groups at both time points. All effect sizes were in the small to medium range.
MYT is feasible and acceptable and shows modest benefits for persons with SZ. MYT can also improve quality of life and clinical symptoms. Larger studies of longer duration are warranted.
A spacetime formulation is presented to solve unsteady aerodynamic problems involving large deformation or topological change such as store separation, slat and flap deployment or spoiler deflection. This technique avoids complex CFD meshing methods, such as Chimera, by the use of a finite-volume approach both in space and time, and permits a locally varying real timestep. The use of a central-difference scheme in the time direction can yield non-physical transient solutions as a consequence of information travelling backwards in time. Therefore, an upwind formulation is provided and validated against one-dimensional and two-dimensional test cases. A hybrid formulation (central in space, upwind in time) is also given and unsteady cases are computed for a spoiler and spoiler/flap deployment, with all three formulations compared, demonstrating that the use of an upwind time stencil yields more representative physical solutions and improves the rate of convergence.
Glufosinate is among the few remaining effective herbicides for postemergence weed control in North Carolina crops. The evolution of glufosinate resistance in key weeds is currently not widespread in North Carolina, but to better assess the current status of glufosinate effectiveness, surveys were distributed at Extension meetings in 2019 and 2020. The surveys were designed to provide information about North Carolina farmers’ perception of glufosinate and its use. Survey results indicate that many North Carolina farmers (≥26%) apply glufosinate at the correct timing (5- to 10-cm weeds). In addition, North Carolina farmers (≥22%) are applying glufosinate as a complementary herbicide to other efficacious herbicides and to control herbicide-resistant weeds, suggesting that glufosinate is part of a diverse chemical weed management plan. Conversely, survey findings indicated that some farmers (13% to 17%) rely exclusively on glufosinate for weed control. Additionally, 28% to 30% of farmers reported glufosinate control failures, and control failures were observed on several weed species among corn, cotton, and soybean crops. The results of the survey suggest that most North Carolina farmers are currently stewarding glufosinate, but they also support the need for Extension personnel to keep educating farmers on how to correctly use glufosinate to delay the evolution of glufosinate-resistant weeds. Semiannual surveys should be distributed to monitor where glufosinate control failures occur and the weed species not being controlled.
The use of ultrasound in the out-of-hospital environment is increasingly feasible. The potential uses for point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) by paramedics are many, but have historically been limited to traumatic indications. This study utilized a scoping review methodology to map the evidence for the use of POCUS by paramedics to assess respiratory distress and to gain a broader understanding of the topic.
Databases Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, and PUBMED were searched from January 1, 1990 through April 14, 2021. Google Scholar was searched, and reference lists of relevant papers were examined to identify additional studies. Articles were included if they reported on out-of-hospital POCUS performed by non-physicians for non-traumatic respiratory distress.
A total of 591 unique articles were identified, of which seven articles met the inclusion criteria. The articles reported various different scan protocols and, with one exception, suffered from low enrolments and low participation. Most articles reported that non-physician-performed ultrasound was feasible. Articles reported moderate to high levels of agreement between paramedics and expert reviewers for scan interpretation in most studies.
Paramedics and emergency medical technicians (EMTs) have demonstrated the feasibility of lung ultrasound in the out-of-hospital environment. Further research should investigate the utility of standardized education and scanning protocols in paramedic-performed lung ultrasound for the differentiation of respiratory distress and the implications for patient outcomes.
Indigenous people throughout North America were dramatically affected by the invasion of European colonizers. Growing evidence suggests that, among many strategies for survival and perseverance, increased sedentism was common; it often resulted from either forced resettlement or attempts to access European resources. We present artifactual, paleoethnobotanical, and faunal findings from the yak tichu tichu yak tilhini northern Chumash village of Tstyiwi (CA-SLO-51/H) where a reasonably discrete postcontact component provides evidence for extreme resource intensification and year-round site use following contact. Although there is evidence for diachronic settlement shifts preceding arrival of the Spanish, the postcontact occupation at Tstyiwi contrasts significantly with 35 exclusively pre-invasion components in its seasonal profile, artifact diversity, density of plant remains, and abundance of fishing equipment and fish bone. High frequencies of the latter two features seem to reflect use of a resource that became the primary focus of subsistence for this coastal community as its inhabitants intensified their work effort to levels never before seen in attempts to avoid the Spanish whose presence had restricted their foraging radius.
Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) exhibit maternally driven fidelity to feeding grounds, and yet occasionally occupy new areas. Humpback whale sightings and mortalities in the New York Bight apex (NYBA) have been increasing over the last decade, providing an opportunity to study this phenomenon in an urban habitat. Whales in this area overlap with human activities, including busy shipping traffic leading into the Port of New York and New Jersey. The site fidelity, population composition and demographics of individual whales were analysed to better inform management in this high-risk area. Whale watching and other opportunistic data collections were used to identify 101 individual humpback whales in the NYBA from spring through autumn, 2012–2018. Although mean occurrence was low (2.5 days), mean occupancy was 37.6 days, and 31.3% of whales returned from one year to the next. Individuals compared with other regional and ocean-basin-wide photo-identification catalogues (N = 52) were primarily resighted at other sites along the US East Coast, including the Gulf of Maine feeding ground. Sightings of mother-calf pairs were rare in the NYBA, suggesting that maternally directed fidelity may not be responsible for the presence of young whales in this area. Other factors including shifts in prey species distribution or changes in population structure more broadly should be investigated.
To investigate a cluster of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in employees working on 1 floor of a hospital administration building.
Contact tracing was performed to identify potential exposures and all employees were tested for SARS-CoV-2. Whole-genome sequencing was performed to determine the relatedness of SARS-CoV-2 samples from infected personnel and from control cases in the healthcare system with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the same period. Carbon dioxide levels were measured during a workday to assess adequacy of ventilation; readings >800 parts per million (ppm) were considered an indication of suboptimal ventilation. To assess the potential for airborne transmission, DNA-barcoded aerosols were released, and real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify particles recovered from air samples in multiple locations.
Between December 22, 2020, and January 8, 2021, 17 coworkers tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, including 13 symptomatic and 4 asymptomatic individuals. Of the 5 cluster SARS-CoV-2 samples sequenced, 3 were genetically related, but these employees denied higher-risk contacts with one another. None of the sequences from the cluster were genetically related to the 17 control sequences of SARS-CoV-2. Carbon dioxide levels increased during a workday but never exceeded 800 ppm. DNA-barcoded aerosol particles were dispersed from the sites of release to locations throughout the floor; 20% of air samples had >1 log10 particles.
In a hospital administration building outbreak, sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 confirmed transmission among coworkers. Transmission occurred despite the absence of higher-risk exposures and in a setting with adequate ventilation based on monitoring of carbon dioxide levels.
Many short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) originate from binary neutron star mergers, and there are several theories that predict the production of coherent, prompt radio signals either prior, during, or shortly following the merger, as well as persistent pulsar-like emission from the spin-down of a magnetar remnant. Here we present a low frequency (170–200 MHz) search for coherent radio emission associated with nine short GRBs detected by the Swift and/or Fermi satellites using the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) rapid-response observing mode. The MWA began observing these events within 30–60 s of their high-energy detection, enabling us to capture any dispersion delayed signals emitted by short GRBs for a typical range of redshifts. We conducted transient searches at the GRB positions on timescales of 5 s, 30 s, and 2 min, resulting in the most constraining flux density limits on any associated transient of 0.42, 0.29, and 0.084 Jy, respectively. We also searched for dispersed signals at a temporal and spectral resolution of 0.5 s and 1.28 MHz, but none were detected. However, the fluence limit of 80–100 Jy ms derived for GRB 190627A is the most stringent to date for a short GRB. Assuming the formation of a stable magnetar for this GRB, we compared the fluence and persistent emission limits to short GRB coherent emission models, placing constraints on key parameters including the radio emission efficiency of the nearly merged neutron stars (
), the fraction of magnetic energy in the GRB jet (
), and the radio emission efficiency of the magnetar remnant (
). Comparing the limits derived for our full GRB sample (along with those in the literature) to the same emission models, we demonstrate that our fluence limits only place weak constraints on the prompt emission predicted from the interaction between the relativistic GRB jet and the interstellar medium for a subset of magnetar parameters. However, the 30-min flux density limits were sensitive enough to theoretically detect the persistent radio emission from magnetar remnants up to a redshift of
. Our non-detection of this emission could imply that some GRBs in the sample were not genuinely short or did not result from a binary neutron star merger, the GRBs were at high redshifts, these mergers formed atypical magnetars, the radiation beams of the magnetar remnants were pointing away from Earth, or the majority did not form magnetars but rather collapse directly into black holes.
Racial and ethnic groups in the USA differ in the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recent research however has not observed consistent racial/ethnic differences in posttraumatic stress in the early aftermath of trauma, suggesting that such differences in chronic PTSD rates may be related to differences in recovery over time.
As part of the multisite, longitudinal AURORA study, we investigated racial/ethnic differences in PTSD and related outcomes within 3 months after trauma. Participants (n = 930) were recruited from emergency departments across the USA and provided periodic (2 weeks, 8 weeks, and 3 months after trauma) self-report assessments of PTSD, depression, dissociation, anxiety, and resilience. Linear models were completed to investigate racial/ethnic differences in posttraumatic dysfunction with subsequent follow-up models assessing potential effects of prior life stressors.
Racial/ethnic groups did not differ in symptoms over time; however, Black participants showed reduced posttraumatic depression and anxiety symptoms overall compared to Hispanic participants and White participants. Racial/ethnic differences were not attenuated after accounting for differences in sociodemographic factors. However, racial/ethnic differences in depression and anxiety were no longer significant after accounting for greater prior trauma exposure and childhood emotional abuse in White participants.
The present findings suggest prior differences in previous trauma exposure partially mediate the observed racial/ethnic differences in posttraumatic depression and anxiety symptoms following a recent trauma. Our findings further demonstrate that racial/ethnic groups show similar rates of symptom recovery over time. Future work utilizing longer time-scale data is needed to elucidate potential racial/ethnic differences in long-term symptom trajectories.
Sleep disturbances are important symptoms to monitor in people with bipolar disorder (BD) but the precise longitudinal relationships between sleep and mood remain unclear. We aimed to examine associations between stable and dynamic aspects of sleep and mood in people with BD, and assess individual differences in the strength of these associations.
Participants (N = 649) with BD-I (N = 400) and BD-II (N = 249) provided weekly self-reports of insomnia, depression and (hypo)mania symptoms using the True Colours online monitoring tool for 21 months. Dynamic structural equation models were used to examine the interplay between weekly reports of insomnia and mood. The effects of clinical and demographic characteristics on associations were also assessed.
Increased variability in insomnia symptoms was associated with increased mood variability. In the sample as a whole, we found strong evidence of bidirectional relationships between insomnia and depressive symptoms but only weak support for bidirectional relationships between insomnia and (hypo)manic symptoms. We found substantial variability between participants in the strength of prospective associations between insomnia and mood, which depended on age, gender, bipolar subtype, and a history of rapid cycling.
Our results highlight the importance of monitoring sleep in people with BD. However, researchers and clinicians investigating the association between sleep and mood should consider subgroup differences in this relationship. Advances in digital technology mean that intensive longitudinal data on sleep and mood are becoming increasingly available. Novel methods to analyse these data present an exciting opportunity for furthering our understanding of BD.
Building on Ellis et al.’s theorization for potent dimensions of environmental adversity, the present work sought to evaluate how environmental harshness and unpredictability might function directly and in interaction with child sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) to shape the development of child socioemotional functioning. Participants were 235 young children (Mage = 2.97 at the first measurement occasion) and their parents, who were followed for two consecutive annual measurement occasions. Child SPS was measured through behavioral observation across multiple tasks within the laboratory setting. Greater environmental unpredictability was significantly associated with the development of children’s externalizing problems over a year only for children with high SPS. Follow-up analyses indicated that the unpredictability-x-SPS interaction was consistent with differential susceptibility, such that high SPS children showed greater increases in externalizing problems under high unpredictability, but also lower increases/greater decreases in externalizing problems under low unpredictability. Such association did not apply to children with low SPS.
To examine the role of salvage intratympanic steroid injections in patients presenting with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss following a poor response to initial oral steroid treatment.
A retrospective analysis of patient records over the course of four years was conducted, and pure tone thresholds were reviewed before treatment, after oral steroid therapy and six weeks after intratympanic steroid injection therapy.
After oral steroid therapy alone, there was a mean average threshold change of 6.2 dB HL (range, −13.8–33.8 dB). This change was statistically significant for severely affected patients (those with an average presenting threshold of over 71 dB). The mean average threshold improvement following intratympanic steroid injection therapy was 2.9 dB (range, −22.5–61.3 dB); this was not statistically significant.
Some patients experienced moderate improvement following intratympanic steroid injection therapy; however, no specific subgroup was identified to benefit more from intratympanic steroid injection therapy.