By taking the Austrian province of Tyrol as a case-study, the article explores the
relationship between Enlightenment, anti-Enlightenment, and national sentiments in and around the
1790s. Characterized by economic crisis and political turbulence, this period had profound consequences
for the formation of national and regional identities amongst the region's German-speaking majority.
In reaction to the challenges posed first by the centralist reforms in the Habsburg monarchy, and
secondly the experience of the French Revolutionary Wars, the local nobility and clergy articulated a
greater Tyrolian provincial consciousness, and also a stronger sense of their German identity. The
mobilizing experience created by Tyrol's fight against the invading French armies meant that these
sentiments were disseminated among and articulated by broader sections of the German-Tyrolian
population as well. The article assesses the meanings and nuances of regional consciousness, local
patriotism, German identity, and dynastic loyalty, and argues that national feeling in Tyrol was
strongly influenced by anti-Enlightenment political and social forces.