Pinaceae is the most species rich and geographically dispersed group of living gymnosperms (Florin, 1963), and comprise a dominant component of modern mountain and boreal forests throughout the northern hemisphere (Florin, 1963). Although there are a few records of possible pinaceous species extending back to the Upper Triassic (Delevoryas and Hope, 1987), unequivocal evidence for the family does not appear until the Cretaceous, and Pinaceae may be the most recently derived conifer family. During the Early Cretaceous, pinaceous remains became common components of terrestrial plant communities, and a diverse array of ovuliferous cones signals an explosive evolutionary radiation within the family (Miller, 1976a). Most of this diversity is chronicled by cones that are clearly representatives of the Pinaceae, but are not assignable to a genus with living species. Cones of these types are assigned to the genera Pityostrobus Dutt, Pseudoaraucaria Fliche, and Obirastrobus Ohsawa, Nishida and Nishida, and have been discovered in a circumpolar distribution from North America, through Europe and Russia, to eastern Asia (Miller, 1976a; Ohsawa et al., 1992; Falder et al., 1998). The purpose of this paper is to extend further the known diversity of the early Pinaceae by the description of a new species of the genus Pityostrobus. This cone is the second Pityostrobus species from southwestern Russia, and it further documents the remarkable Cretaceous evolutionary radiation of Pinaceae.