To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Copy number variants (CNVs) have been associated with the risk of schizophrenia, autism and intellectual disability. However, little is known about their spectrum of psychopathology in adulthood.
We investigated the psychiatric phenotypes of adult CNV carriers and compared probands, who were ascertained through clinical genetics services, with carriers who were not. One hundred twenty-four adult participants (age 18–76), each bearing one of 15 rare CNVs, were recruited through a variety of sources including clinical genetics services, charities for carriers of genetic variants, and online advertising. A battery of psychiatric assessments was used to determine psychopathology.
The frequencies of psychopathology were consistently higher for the CNV group compared to general population rates. We found particularly high rates of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) (48%), mood disorders (42%), anxiety disorders (47%) and personality disorders (73%) as well as high rates of psychiatric multimorbidity (median number of diagnoses: 2 in non-probands, 3 in probands). NDDs [odds ratio (OR) = 4.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32–16.51; p = 0.017) and psychotic disorders (OR = 6.8, 95% CI 1.3–36.3; p = 0.025) occurred significantly more frequently in probands (N = 45; NDD: 39[87%]; psychosis: 8[18%]) than non-probands (N = 79; NDD: 20 [25%]; psychosis: 3[4%]). Participants also had somatic diagnoses pertaining to all organ systems, particularly conotruncal cardiac malformations (in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome specifically), musculoskeletal, immunological, and endocrine diseases.
Adult CNV carriers had a markedly increased rate of anxiety and personality disorders not previously reported and high rates of psychiatric multimorbidity. Our findings support in-depth psychiatric and medical assessments of carriers of CNVs and the establishment of multidisciplinary clinical services.
The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated gender disparities in some academic disciplines. This study examined the association of the pandemic with gender authorship disparities in clinical neuropsychology (CN) journals.
Author bylines of 1,018 initial manuscript submissions to four major CN journals from March 15 through September 15 of both 2019 and 2020 were coded for binary gender. Additionally, authorship of 40 articles published on pandemic-related topics (COVID-19, teleneuropsychology) across nine CN journals were coded for binary gender.
Initial submissions to these four CN journals increased during the pandemic (+27.2%), with comparable increases in total number of authors coded as either women (+23.0%) or men (+25.4%). Neither the average percentage of women on manuscript bylines nor the proportion of women who were lead and/or corresponding authors differed significantly across time. Moreover, the representation of women as authors of pandemic-related articles did not differ from expected frequencies in the field.
Findings suggest that representation of women as authors of peer-reviewed manuscript submissions to some CN journals did not change during the initial months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Future studies might examine how risk and protective factors may have influenced individual differences in scientific productivity during the pandemic.
Meeting the complex demands of conservation requires a multi-skilled workforce operating in a sector that is respected and supported. Although professionalization of conservation is widely seen as desirable, there is no consistent understanding of what that entails. Here, we review whether and how eight elements of professionalization observed in other sectors are applicable to conservation: (1) a defined and respected occupation; (2) official recognition; (3) knowledge, learning, competences and standards; (4) paid employment; (5) codes of conduct and ethics; (6) individual commitment; (7) organizational capacity; and (8) professional associations. Despite significant achievements in many of these areas, overall progress is patchy, and conventional concepts of professionalization are not always a good fit for conservation. Reasons for this include the multidisciplinary nature of conservation work, the disproportionate influence of elite groups on the development and direction of the profession, and under-representation of field practitioners and of Indigenous peoples and local communities with professional-equivalent skills. We propose a more inclusive approach to professionalization that reflects the full range of practitioners in the sector and the need for increased recognition in countries and regions of high biodiversity. We offer a new definition that characterizes conservation professionals as practitioners who act as essential links between conservation action and conservation knowledge and policy, and provide seven recommendations for building a more effective, inclusive and representative profession.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
Herbicide-resistant (HR) kochia is a growing problem in the Great Plains region of Canada and the United States. Resistance to up to four herbicide sites of action, including photosystem II inhibitors, acetolactate synthase inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase inhibitor glyphosate have been reported in many areas of this region. Despite being present in the United States since 1993/1994, auxinic-HR kochia is a recent and growing phenomenon in Canada. This study was designed to characterize 1) the level of resistance and 2) patterns of cross-resistance to dicamba and fluroxypyr in 12 putative auxinic-HR kochia populations from western Canada. The incidence of dicamba-resistant individuals ranged among populations from 0% to 85%, while fluroxypyr-resistant individuals ranged from 0% to 45%. In whole-plant dose-response bioassays, the populations exhibited up to 6.5-fold resistance to dicamba and up to 51.5-fold resistance to fluroxypyr based on visible injury 28 d after application. Based on plant survival estimates, the populations exhibited up to 3.7-fold resistance to dicamba and up to 72.5-fold resistance to fluroxypyr. Multiple patterns of synthetic auxin resistance were observed, in which one population from Cypress County, Alberta, was resistant to dicamba but not fluroxypyr, whereas another from Rocky View County, Alberta, was resistant to fluroxypyr but not dicamba based on single-dose population screening and dose-response bioassays. These results suggest that multiple mechanisms may confer resistance to dicamba and/or fluroxypyr in Canadian kochia populations. Further research is warranted to determine these mechanisms. Farmers are urged to adopt proactive nonchemical weed management practices in an effort to preserve efficacy of the remaining herbicide options available for control of HR kochia.
Fungal endocarditis classically involves dense heterogenous vegetations. However, several patients with fungal infections were noted to have myocardial changes ranging from focal brightening to nodular thickening of chordae or papillary muscles. This study evaluates whether these findings are associated with fungal infections.
In a retrospective case–control study, paediatric inpatients with fungal infections (positive blood, urine, or catheter tip culture) in a 5-year period were matched 1:1 to inpatients without positive fungal cultures. Echocardiograms were scored on a 5-point scale by two independent readers for presence of myocardial brightenings, nodular thickenings, and vegetations. Clinical data were compared.
Of 67 fungal cases, positive culture sites included blood (n = 44), vascular catheter tip (n = 7), and urine (n = 29); several had multiple positive sites. “Positive” echo findings (score ≥ 2+) were more frequent in the Fungal Group (33 versus 18%, p = 0.04). Fungal Group patients with “positive” versus “negative” echo findings had similar proportion of bacterial infections. Among fungal cases, those with “positive” echo findings had longer hospital length of stay than cases with “negative” echos (median 58 versus 40 days, p = 0.03) but no difference in intensive care unit admission, extracorporeal membranous oxygenation support, or mortality.
Myocardial and papillary muscle brightening with nodular thickening on echocardiogram appear to be associated with fungal infections. There may be prognostic implications of these findings as patients with “positive” echo have longer length of stay. Further studies are needed to better understand the mechanism and temporal progression of these changes and determine the prognostic value of this scoring system.
Individuals with schizophrenia are at higher risk of physical illnesses, which are a major contributor to their 20-year reduced life expectancy. It is currently unknown what causes the increased risk of physical illness in schizophrenia.
To link genetic data from a clinically ascertained sample of individuals with schizophrenia to anonymised National Health Service (NHS) records. To assess (a) rates of physical illness in those with schizophrenia, and (b) whether physical illness in schizophrenia is associated with genetic liability.
We linked genetic data from a clinically ascertained sample of individuals with schizophrenia (Cardiff Cognition in Schizophrenia participants, n = 896) to anonymised NHS records held in the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) databank. Physical illnesses were defined from the General Practice Database and Patient Episode Database for Wales. Genetic liability for schizophrenia was indexed by (a) rare copy number variants (CNVs), and (b) polygenic risk scores.
Individuals with schizophrenia in SAIL had increased rates of epilepsy (standardised rate ratio (SRR) = 5.34), intellectual disability (SRR = 3.11), type 2 diabetes (SRR = 2.45), congenital disorders (SRR = 1.77), ischaemic heart disease (SRR = 1.57) and smoking (SRR = 1.44) in comparison with the general SAIL population. In those with schizophrenia, carrier status for schizophrenia-associated CNVs and neurodevelopmental disorder-associated CNVs was associated with height (P = 0.015–0.017), with carriers being 7.5–7.7 cm shorter than non-carriers. We did not find evidence that the increased rates of poor physical health outcomes in schizophrenia were associated with genetic liability for the disorder.
This study demonstrates the value of and potential for linking genetic data from clinically ascertained research studies to anonymised health records. The increased risk for physical illness in schizophrenia is not caused by genetic liability for the disorder.
We report the effect of prospective audit and feedback (PAF) on inpatient fluoroquinolone (FQN) prescriptions. During the PAF period, FQN use decreased from 39.19 to 29.58 days of therapy per 1,000 patient days (P < .001) and appropriateness improved from 68% to 88% (P < .001). High-yield indications to target included noninfectious urinary tract and respiratory presentations.
A number of genomic conditions caused by copy number variants (CNVs) are associated with a high risk of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders (ND-CNVs). Although these patients also tend to have cognitive impairments, few studies have investigated the range of emotion and behaviour problems in young people with ND-CNVs using measures that are suitable for those with learning difficulties.
A total of 322 young people with 13 ND-CNVs across eight loci (mean age: 9.79 years, range: 6.02–17.91, 66.5% male) took part in the study. Primary carers completed the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC).
Of the total, 69% of individuals with an ND-CNV screened positive for clinically significant difficulties. Young people from families with higher incomes (OR = 0.71, CI = 0.55–0.91, p = .008) were less likely to screen positive. The rate of difficulties differed depending on ND-CNV genotype (χ2 = 39.99, p < 0.001), with the lowest rate in young people with 22q11.2 deletion (45.7%) and the highest in those with 1q21.1 deletion (93.8%). Specific patterns of strengths and weaknesses were found for different ND-CNV genotypes. However, ND-CNV genotype explained no more than 9–16% of the variance, depending on DBC subdomain.
Emotion and behaviour problems are common in young people with ND-CNVs. The ND-CNV specific patterns we find can provide a basis for more tailored support. More research is needed to better understand the variation in emotion and behaviour problems not accounted for by genotype.
Registry-based trials have emerged as a potentially cost-saving study methodology. Early estimates of cost savings, however, conflated the benefits associated with registry utilisation and those associated with other aspects of pragmatic trial designs, which might not all be as broadly applicable. In this study, we sought to build a practical tool that investigators could use across disciplines to estimate the ranges of potential cost differences associated with implementing registry-based trials versus standard clinical trials.
We built simulation Markov models to compare unique costs associated with data acquisition, cleaning, and linkage under a registry-based trial design versus a standard clinical trial. We conducted one-way, two-way, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, varying study characteristics over broad ranges, to determine thresholds at which investigators might optimally select each trial design.
Registry-based trials were more cost effective than standard clinical trials 98.6% of the time. Data-related cost savings ranged from $4300 to $600,000 with variation in study characteristics. Cost differences were most reactive to the number of patients in a study, the number of data elements per patient available in a registry, and the speed with which research coordinators could manually abstract data. Registry incorporation resulted in cost savings when as few as 3768 independent data elements were available and when manual data abstraction took as little as 3.4 seconds per data field.
Registries offer important resources for investigators. When available, their broad incorporation may help the scientific community reduce the costs of clinical investigation. We offer here a practical tool for investigators to assess potential costs savings.
Optimal management of schizophrenia in adolescents is limited by the lack of available therapies. The efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole was investigated in this patient population.
This 6-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial was conducted at 101 international centers, with a safety monitoring board. 13-17 year-olds with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia were randomized to placebo, or a fixed dose of aripiprazole 10 mg or 30 mg reached after a 5 or 11 day titration, respectively. The primary endpoint was mean change from baseline on the PANSS Total score at week 6. Secondary endpoints included the PANSS Positive and Negative subscales, and CGI Improvement score. Tolerabilility assessements included frequency and severity of adverse events, as well as blood chemistries, metabolic parameters and weight gain.
Over 85% of 302 patients completed this study. Both 10 mg and 30 mg doses were superior to placebo on the primary endpoint (PANSS total), with significant differences observed as early as Week 1 (30mg). Both doses showed significant improvement on the PANSS Positive and CGI-I scales; and the 10 mg dose group was superior on PANSS Negative score. Approximately 5% of aripiprazole patients discontinued due to AEs. Weight gain and changes in prolactin were minimal.
10mg and 30mg doses of aripiprazole were superior to placebo in the treatment of adolescents with schizophrenia. Aripiprazole was well tolerated, in general, with few discontinuations due to AEs. EPS was the most common AE. Change in body weight was similar to placebo.
This pilot study tested the feasibility, acceptability, and effect-sizes of a multimodal, individual intervention designed to optimize antipsychotic medication use in patients ≥40 years of age with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.
We randomized 40 patients into two groups: usual care (UC) or a nine-session, manualized, antipsychotic adherence intervention (AAI). the AAI attempted to improve adherence by combining three psychosocial techniques:
b. skills training, and
c. alliance building.
Sessions employed a semi-structured format to facilitate open communication. the primary outcome was antipsychotic adherence at study end. We obtained qualitative data regarding patient preferences for the duration and modality for receiving the adherence intervention.
Compared to the UC group, a greater proportion of the AAI group was adherent post-intervention based on medication possession ratio, a commonly used measure of medication adherence (85% vs. 66.6%; OR=2.64), a difference that was statistically not significant. the entire AAI group reported that they intended to take medications, and 75% were satisfied with the intervention.
The AAI was feasible and acceptable. Preliminary data on its effectiveness warrant a larger study. Qualitative data shows that patients prefer brief adherence interventions and accept telephone strategies.
There is limited published data from long-term pediatric bipolar clinical trials with which to guide appropriate treatment decisions. Long-term efficacy and safety of aripiprazole was investigated in this patient population.
296 youths, ages 10-17 year-old with a DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar I disorder were randomized to receive either placebo or aripiprazole (10mg or 30mg) in a 4-week double-blind trial. Completers continued assigned treatments for an additional 26 weeks (double-blind). Efficacy endpoints included mean change from baseline to week 4 and week 30 on the Young Mania Rating Scale; Children's Global Assessment Scale, Clinical Global Impressions-Bipolar version severity scale, General Behavior Inventory, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders Rating Scale, and time to discontinuation. Tolerability/safety assessments included incidence and severity of AEs, blood chemistries and metabolic parameters.
Over the 30-week course of double-blind treatment, aripiprazole (10 mg and 30 mg) was superior to placebo as early as week 1 (p< 0.002) and at all scheduled visits from week 2 through week 30 on mean change from baseline in the Y-MRS total score (p<.0001; all visits). Significant improvements were observed on multiple endpoints including the CGAS, GBI, CGI-BP, ADHD-RS-IV total score, time to discontinuation, and response and remission rates. The 3 most common AEs were somnolence, extrapyramidal disorder, and fatigue. Mean change in body weight z-scores over 30 weeks was not clinically significant.
Over 30-weeks of treatment, both doses of aripiprazole were superior to placebo in the long term treatment of pediatric bipolar patients. Aripiprazole was generally well tolerated.
The prevalence and impact of motor coordination difficulties in children with copy number variants associated with neurodevelopmental disorders (ND-CNVs) remains unknown. This study aims to advance understanding of motor coordination difficulties in children with ND-CNVs and establish relationships between intelligence quotient (IQ) and psychopathology.
169 children with an ND-CNV (67% male, median age = 8.88 years, range 6.02–14.81) and 72 closest-in-age unaffected siblings (controls; 55% male, median age = 10.41 years, s.d. = 3.04, range 5.89–14.75) were assessed with the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire, alongside psychiatric interviews and standardised assessments of IQ.
The children with ND-CNVs had poorer coordination ability (b = 28.98, p < 0.001) and 91% of children with an ND-CNV screened positive for suspected developmental coordination disorder, compared to 19% of controls (OR = 42.53, p < 0.001). There was no difference in coordination ability between ND-CNV genotypes (F = 1.47, p = 0.184). Poorer coordination in children with ND-CNV was associated with more attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (β = −0.18, p = 0.021) and autism spectrum disorder trait (β = −0.46, p < 0.001) symptoms, along with lower full-scale (ß = 0.21, p = 0.011), performance (β = −0.20, p = 0.015) and verbal IQ (β = 0.17, p = 0.036). Mediation analysis indicated that coordination ability was a full mediator of anxiety symptoms (69% mediated, p = 0.012), and a partial mediator of ADHD (51%, p = 0.001) and autism spectrum disorder trait symptoms (66%, p < 0.001) as well as full scale IQ (40%, p = 0.002), performance IQ (40%, p = 0.005) and verbal IQ (38%, p = 0.006) scores.
The findings indicate that poor motor coordination is highly prevalent and closely linked to risk of mental health disorder and lower intellectual function in children with ND-CNVs. Future research should explore whether early interventions for poor coordination ability could ameliorate neurodevelopmental risk.
A new fossil site in a previously unexplored part of western Madagascar (the Beanka Protected Area) has yielded remains of many recently extinct vertebrates, including giant lemurs (Babakotia radofilai, Palaeopropithecus kelyus, Pachylemur sp., and Archaeolemur edwardsi), carnivores (Cryptoprocta spelea), the aardvark-like Plesiorycteropus sp., and giant ground cuckoos (Coua). Many of these represent considerable range extensions. Extant species that were extirpated from the region (e.g., Prolemur simus) are also present. Calibrated radiocarbon ages for 10 bones from extinct primates span the last three millennia. The largely undisturbed taphonomy of bone deposits supports the interpretation that many specimens fell in from a rock ledge above the entrance. Some primates and other mammals may have been prey items of avian predators, but human predation is also evident. Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) suggest that fossils were local to the area. Pottery sherds and bones of extinct and extant vertebrates with cut and chop marks indicate human activity in previous centuries. Scarcity of charcoal and human artifacts suggests only occasional visitation to the site by humans. The fossil assemblage from this site is unusual in that, while it contains many sloth lemurs, it lacks ratites, hippopotami, and crocodiles typical of nearly all other Holocene subfossil sites on Madagascar.
The current study evaluated growth performance and digestion responses of finishing bulls fed diets containing 825 g/kg flint maize [dry matter (DM) basis] ground to medium (1.66 mm; MG) or coarse particle sizes (2.12 mm; CG), with added monensin (26 mg/kg; DM basis; MON) or a blend of essential oils (BEO) + exogenous α-amylase (AM; 90 mg/kg + 560 mg/kg commercial product, respectively, DM basis). In Expt 1, 256 Nellore bulls were blocked by initial body weight (BW) (360 ± 11.7 kg) and assigned to 48 pens in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Effect of a maize particle size × feed additive interaction was not detected for final BW, DM intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency. The DMI was greater for bulls fed BEO + AM v. MON. Final BW and ADG tended to be greater for bulls fed CG than MG maize. An interaction was detected for hot carcass weight which was 11 kg heavier for bulls fed BEO + AM v. MON in diets containing CG, but not MG particle size. In Expt 2, four ruminally cannulated Nellore steers were offered the same treatments as Expt 1, in a 4 × 4 Latin Square design. Intake of most nutrients was greater for steers fed CG than steers fed MG maize. In summary, feeding bulls CG maize increased growth performance and carcass characteristics compared with MG. The combination of BEO + AM resulted in heavier carcass weights compared with MON supplementation when included in diets containing CG maize.
Young people with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) are at high risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. Sleep problems may play a role in this risk but their prevalence, nature and links to psychopathology and cognitive function remain undescribed in this population.
Sleep problems, psychopathology, developmental coordination and cognitive function were assessed in 140 young people with 22q11.2DS (mean age = 10.1, s.d. = 2.46) and 65 unaffected sibling controls (mean age = 10.8, s.d.SD = 2.26). Primary carers completed questionnaires screening for the children's developmental coordination and autism spectrum disorder.
Sleep problems were identified in 60% of young people with 22q11.2DS compared to 23% of sibling controls (OR 5.00, p < 0.001). Two patterns best-described sleep problems in 22q11.2DS: restless sleep and insomnia. Restless sleep was linked to increased ADHD symptoms (OR 1.16, p < 0.001) and impaired executive function (OR 0.975, p = 0.013). Both patterns were associated with elevated symptoms of anxiety disorder (restless sleep: OR 1.10, p = 0.006 and insomnia: OR 1.07, p = 0.045) and developmental coordination disorder (OR 0.968, p = 0.0023, and OR 0.955, p = 0.009). The insomnia pattern was also linked to elevated conduct disorder symptoms (OR 1.53, p = 0.020).
Clinicians and carers should be aware that sleep problems are common in 22q11.2DS and index psychiatric risk, cognitive deficits and motor coordination problems. Future studies should explore the physiology of sleep and the links with the neurodevelopment in these young people.
Decreases in Fe status have been reported in military women during initial training periods of 8–10 weeks. The present study aimed to characterise Fe status and associations with physical performance in female New Zealand Army recruits during a 16-week basic combat training (BCT) course. Fe status indicators – Hb, serum ferritin (sFer), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), transferrin saturation (TS) and erythrocyte distribution width (RDW) – were assessed at the beginning (baseline) and end of BCT in seventy-six volunteers without Fe-deficiency non-anaemia (sFer <12 µg/l; Hb ≥120 g/l) or Fe-deficiency anaemia (sFer <12 µg/l; Hb <120 g/l) at baseline or a C-reactive protein >10 mg/l at baseline or end. A timed 2·4 km run followed by maximum press-ups were performed at baseline and midpoint (week 8) to assess physical performance. Changes in Fe status were investigated using paired t tests and associations between Fe status and physical performance evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients. sFer (56·6 (sd 33·7) v. 38·4 (sd 23·8) µg/l) and TS (38·8 (sd 13·9) v. 34·4 (sd 11·5) %) decreased (P<0·001 and P=0·014, respectively), while sTfR (1·21 (sd 0·27) v. 1·39 (sd 0·35) mg/l) and RDW (12·8 (sd 0·6) v. 13·2 (sd 0·7) %) increased (P<0·001) from baseline to end. Hb (140·6 (sd 7·5) v. 142·9 (sd 7·9) g/l) increased (P=0·009) during BCT. At end, sTfR was positively (r 0·29, P=0·012) and TS inversely associated (r –0·32, P=0·005) with midpoint run time. There were no significant correlations between Fe status and press-ups. Storage and functional Fe parameters indicated a decline in Fe status in female recruits during BCT. Correlations between tissue-Fe indicators and run times suggest impaired aerobic fitness. Optimal Fe status appears paramount for enabling success in female recruits during military training.