The population of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region was 432 million in 2007 and it is estimated that in 2050 this figure will rise to 692 million inhabitants. The poultry industry in the MENA region depends heavily on imported soybeans and soybean meals. About 8.5 million metric tons of soybean meal (SBM) are needed for the production of poultry meat and eggs every year, based on the production of about 8.2 million tons of poultry meat and 3.7 million tons of eggs. Poultry feed prices are consistently increasing because of dependence on imported soybean meal. Hence, it is essential to find sustainable alternative protein sources. Several countries in the region produce sizeable amounts of oil seed meals that can partially or fully replace soybean meal in poultry rations. Nearly 5 million tons of cottonseed meal (CSM), peanut meal, sesame meal, sunflower meal and rapeseed meal are produced yearly in this region. The neighbouring countries of India, Pakistan and Sudan produce over 36 million tons of these meals. This study focused on these five meals in relation to amounts produced, quality and possible levels of use in various poultry rations. Data will be presented on availability, constraints of these meals as replacements for SBM, economic feasibility, and methods of improvement for possible utilisation at higher levels. Oil seed meal digestibility, quality, naturally occurring toxins, antimetabolites, mycotoxins, nutrient imbalances, and prices play a major role in determining the use of these meals for the production of poultry meat and eggs.