The papers presented on this panel so far explore how countries and courts have worked around jurisdictional lacunae in international law. This last paper considers the question of jurisdiction from the other side: How should judges handle jurisdictional excess? While jurisdictional gaps can create governance problems, exorbitant claims of jurisdiction can make the cooperation and reciprocity needed to solve those governance problems harder to achieve. And if finding the right balance between ensuring adequate jurisdiction and avoiding exorbitant jurisdiction were not hard enough, much of that balancing is left up to individual judges deciding individual cases in domestic courts. Private international law is, in this sense, a decentralized system that depends on ad hoc calibration by dispersed judges.