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The most immediate response of the research community to COVID-19 has been a focus on understanding the effects, treatment and prevention of infection. Of equal and ongoing importance is elucidating the impact of mitigation measures, such as lockdown, on the well-being of societies. Research about mental health and lockdown in the UK has predominately involved large surveys that are likely to encounter self-selection bias. Further, self-reporting does not constitute a clinical judgement.
To (a) compare the age, gender and ethnicity of patients experiencing mental health emergencies prior compared with during lockdown, (b) determine whether the nature of mental health emergencies has changed during compared with before lockdown, (c) explore the utility of emergency medical service data for identifying vulnerability to mental health emergencies in real time during a pandemic.
A total of 32 401 clinical records of ambulance paramedics attending mental health emergencies in the East Midlands of the UK between 23 March and 31 July 2020 and the same period in 2019 were analysed using binary logistic regression.
People of younger age, male gender and South Asian and Black ethnicity are particularly vulnerable to acute mental health conditions during lockdown. Patients with acute cases of anxiety have increased during lockdown whereas suicide and intentional drug overdose have decreased.
Self-reported data may underrepresent the true impact of lockdown on male mental health and ethnic minority groups. Emergency medical data can be used to identify vulnerable communities in the context of the extraordinary circumstances surrounding the current pandemic, as well as under more ordinary circumstances.
The Subglacial Antarctic Lakes Scientific Access (SALSA) Project accessed Mercer Subglacial Lake using environmentally clean hot-water drilling to examine interactions among ice, water, sediment, rock, microbes and carbon reservoirs within the lake water column and underlying sediments. A ~0.4 m diameter borehole was melted through 1087 m of ice and maintained over ~10 days, allowing observation of ice properties and collection of water and sediment with various tools. Over this period, SALSA collected: 60 L of lake water and 10 L of deep borehole water; microbes >0.2 μm in diameter from in situ filtration of ~100 L of lake water; 10 multicores 0.32–0.49 m long; 1.0 and 1.76 m long gravity cores; three conductivity–temperature–depth profiles of borehole and lake water; five discrete depth current meter measurements in the lake and images of ice, the lake water–ice interface and lake sediments. Temperature and conductivity data showed the hydrodynamic character of water mixing between the borehole and lake after entry. Models simulating melting of the ~6 m thick basal accreted ice layer imply that debris fall-out through the ~15 m water column to the lake sediments from borehole melting had little effect on the stratigraphy of surficial sediment cores.
NHS Practitioner Health is the England wide programme providing mental health and addiction healthcare to doctors and dentists. Outcomes are assessed using five measures.
To contribute to a service evaluation of NHS Practitioner Health. To determine responsiveness to change and compare outcome measures.
Measures were completed at baseline and 6 months: Generalized Anxiety Disorder Assessment (GAD-7), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Patient Health Questionaire-9 (PHQ-9), Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing scale (WEMWBS), Psychological Outcome Profiles (PSYCHLOPS). Responsiveness to change was determined using effect size with improvement threshold ≥0.80. Instruments were compared using Bland–Altman plots.
Our sample, n = 402; with 14 (3.5%) excluded for missing data; final sample, n = 388. All measures showed strong mean effect sizes: PSYCHLOPS 1.86 (95%CI 1.73–1.99), 75.8% ≥0.80; PSS 1.48 (1.34–1.62), 64.4% ≥0.80; WEMWBS 1.24 (1.13–1.35), 58.2% ≥0.80; GAD-7 1.07 (0.96–1.18), 52.8% ≥0.80; PHQ-9 0.86 (0.76–0.96), 52.8% ≥0.80. Findings were largely unchanged after stratification by diagnosis, presenting problem or therapy type. Fifty (12.9%) participants did not reach the threshold for improvement on any instrument. Bland–Altman plots indicated generally strong agreement between measures; combining PSYCHLOPS with WEMWBS maximised capture of improvement with only 3.6% of patients lying outside limits of agreement; GAD-7 was most likely to duplicate recovery scores of other measures.
Patients attending the NHS Practitioner Health service demonstrated high levels of improvement in mental health scores. The patient-generated instrument produced higher change scores than standardised instruments. Combining PSYCHLOPS and WEMWBS captured 96% of patients with above threshold improvement; GAD-7 added little to overall recovery measurement.
Healthcare-acquired infections are a tremendous challenge to the US medical system. Stethoscopes touch many patients, but current guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention does not support disinfection between each patient. Stethoscopes are rarely disinfected between patients by healthcare providers. When cultured, even after disinfection, stethoscopes have high rates of pathogen contamination, identical to that of unwashed hands. The consequence of these practices may bode poorly in the coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Alternatively, the CDC recommends the use of disposable stethoscopes. However, these instruments have poor acoustic properties, and misdiagnoses have been documented. They may also serve as pathogen vectors among staff sharing them. Disposable aseptic stethoscope diaphragm barriers can provide increased safety without sacrificing stethoscope function. We recommend that the CDC consider the research regarding stethoscope hygiene and effective solutions to contemporize this guidance and elevate stethoscope hygiene to that of the hands, by requiring stethoscope disinfection or change of disposable barrier between every patient encounter.
Intrauterine preeclampsia exposure affects the lifelong cardiometabolic health of the child. Our study aimed to compare the growth (from birth to 6 months) of infants exposed to either a normotensive pregnancy or preeclampsia and explore the influence of being born small for gestational age (SGA). Participants were children of women participating in the Post-partum, Physiology, Psychology and Paediatric follow-up cohort study. Birth and 6-month weight and length z-scores were calculated for term and preterm (<37 weeks) babies, and change in weight z-score, rapid weight gain (≥0.67 increase in weight z-score) and conditional weight gain z-score were calculated. Compared with normotensive exposed infants (n = 298), preeclampsia exposed infants (n = 84) were more likely to be born SGA (7% versus 23%; P < 0.001), but weight gain from birth to 6 months, by any measure, did not differ between groups. Infants born SGA, irrespective of pregnancy exposure, were more likely to have rapid weight gain and had greater increases in weight z-score compared with those not born SGA. Preeclampsia exposed infants born SGA may benefit from interventions designed to prevent future cardiometabolic disease.
Rapid and regionally contrasting climate changes have been observed around Antarctica. However, our understanding of the impact of these changes on ecosystems remains limited, and there is an urgent need to better identify habitats of Antarctic species. The Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) is a circumpolar mesopredator and an indicative species of Antarctic marine communities. It has been extensively studied in the western Ross Sea and East Antarctica, and an understanding of its ecology in the Weddell Sea in the wintertime is emerging. We documented the behavioural response(s) of four Weddell seals from February to June in 2017 in the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf region and related these to unusual oceanographic conditions in 2017. Unexpectedly, we found that Weddell seals had the longest foraging effort within the outflow of Ice Shelf Water or at its turbulent boundary. They also foraged on the eastern side of the trough from April to June within the Modified Warm Deep Water and seem to take advantage of the unusual conditions of persistent inflow of warm waters through the winter. Linking animal behavioural responses to oceanographic conditions is informative for quantifying rarely recorded events and provides great insight into how predators may respond to changing conditions.
Creativity appears to be an important part of cognitive capacities and problem solving. Creativity is one’s ability to generate ideas that are novel, surprising, and compelling (Kaufman and Sternberg, 2010). This chapter will focus on the creative-cognitive approach, which seeks to further understand how human minds produce creative ideas.
Deutetrabenazine is FDA approved for tardive dyskinesia (TD) based on two 12-week, placebo-controlled studies evaluating safety and efficacy in patients with baseline Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) score ≥6. Deutetrabenazine reduced overall AIMS scores compared with placebo in ARM-TD (–3.0 vs –1.6, P=0.019) and AIM-TD (24 mg/day, –3.2 vs –1.4, P=0.003; 36 mg/day, –3.3 vs –1.4, P=0.001). This analysis assessed Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) in AIMS score in patients with TD treated with deutetrabenazine.
MCID is the smallest change from baseline in AIMS score that is meaningful for patients. MCID analyses were performed based on Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) and Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) as anchors described by Hauser et al., where MCID is the difference between patients treated with deutetrabenazine who were minimally improved and patients treated with placebo who were unchanged. Additional MCID definitions were explored: difference between patients who demonstrated treatment improvement versus those who did not (Method 2); difference between patients who demonstrated treatment success versus those who did not (Method 3).
295 patients were analyzed. Based on PGIC, the suggested MCID was –2.8. Results were similar for Method 2 (75% of patients had treatment improvement; MCID = –2.8) and Method 3 (38% of patients had treatment success; MCID = –2.6). Based on CGIC, the suggested MCID was –2.6. Results were similar for Method 2 (76% of patients had treatment improvement; MCID = –2.8) and Method 3 (41% of patients had treatment success; MCID = –3.0). Therefore, the suggested MCID for deutetrabenazine is –3.
The MCID for change in AIMS score based on PGIC and CGIC for deutetrabenazine was –3 regardless of the analytical method. Findings suggest an AIMS score reduction of ~3 is associated with clinically meaningful improvement in TD symptoms.
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Petach Tikva, Israel
Deutetrabenazine, a novel vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) inhibitor, is approved by the FDA for treatment of tardive dyskinesia (TD) in adults. Dopamine-receptor antagonists (DRAs) are associated with worsening of metabolic parameters, including weight gain, hyperlipidemia, and elevated blood glucose. This post hoc analysis assessed the short- and long-term effects of deutetrabenazine treatment on weight and metabolic parameters in individuals treated for TD.
Two 12-week, randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) of deutetrabenazine for patients with TD evaluated either fixed dosing (AIM-TD; 12, 24, or 36 mg) or dose titration (ARM-TD; max dose, 48 mg/day). Patients completing ARM-TD or AIM-TD were included in an open-label extension (OLE) study, in which all patients underwent response-driven titration of deutetrabenazine from 12 mg/day up to a maximum total dose of 48 mg/day. Weight, body mass index (BMI), serum glucose, serum total cholesterol, and serum triglycerides were evaluated at baseline and during treatment in the RCTs and in the OLE.
In the RCTs, 282 and 133 patients received deutetrabenazine or placebo. At baseline, 77% of patients used DRAs. At Week 12, no meaningful changes in weight were observed, with mean (standard error) weight changes of 0.9–1.2 (0.3–0.5) and 0.2 (0.3) kg in the deutetrabenazine and placebo groups, respectively, and mean BMI changes of 0.3–0.5 (0.1–0.2) and 0.1 (0.1) kg/m2. 337 patients were included in the analysis of the OLE study. No meaningful changes were observed in weight (mean change: 0.4 [0.4] kg at Week 54, –0.5 [0.6] kg at Week 106, and –1.1 [0.6] kg at Week 145) or BMI (mean change: 0.1 [0.2] kg/m2 at Week 54, –0.2 [0.2] kg/m2 at Week 106, and –0.3 [0.2] kg/m2 at Week 145). Across the studies, no meaningful changes were observed in triglyceride, cholesterol, or glucose levels.
Deutetrabenazine does not affect common metabolic parameters in patients with TD, even during long-term exposure.
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Petach Tikva, Israel
The 12-week ARM-TD and AIM-TD studies in tardive dyskinesia (TD) patients showed statistically significant improvements in TD symptoms with deutetrabenazine. The completed open-label extension (OLE) study (SD-809-C−20) evaluated long-term efficacy and safety of deutetrabenazine in TD.
Patients who completed ARM-TD or AIM-TD enrolled in the OLE study, with deutetrabenazine dose titrated based on dyskinesia control and tolerability. Change from baseline in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) score was assessed by local site raters. Treatment success was evaluated locally as patients being “much improved” or “very much improved” on Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC).
343 patients enrolled in the OLE study; 6 patients were excluded from analyses. At Week 54 (n=249; dose [mean±SE]: 38.7±0.66mg/day), mean change from baseline in AIMS score was –4.8±0.28; 66% of patients experienced treatment success. At Week 106 (n=194; dose: 39.3±0.75mg/day), mean change from baseline in AIMS score was –5.4±0.33; 65% of patients experienced treatment success. At Week 145 (n=160; dose: 39.4±0.83mg/day), mean change from baseline in AIMS score was –6.6±0.37; 73% of patients experienced treatment success. Treatment was generally well tolerated across 723 patient-years of exposure through Week 158, and exposure-adjusted incidence rates (incidence/patient-years) for akathisia/restlessness were 0.01, somnolence/sedation were 0.07, and symptoms which may represent parkinsonism or depression were 0.08 each.
Patients who received long-term treatment with deutetrabenazine achieved sustained improvement in AIMS scores. Findings from this open-label trial with response-driven dosing suggest the possibility of increasing benefit over time.
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Petach Tikva, Israel
The triarchic model was advanced as an integrative, trait-based framework for investigating psychopathy using different assessment methods and across developmental periods. Recent research has shown that the triarchic traits of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition can be operationalized effectively in youth, but longitudinal research is needed to realize the model's potential to advance developmental understanding of psychopathy. We report on the creation and validation of scale measures of the triarchic traits using questionnaire items available in the University of Southern California Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior (RFAB) project, a large-scale longitudinal study of the development of antisocial behavior that includes measures from multiple modalities (self-report, informant rating, clinical-diagnostic, task-behavioral, physiological). Using a construct-rating and psychometric refinement approach, we developed triarchic scales that showed acceptable reliability, expected intercorrelations, and good temporal stability. The scales showed theory-consistent relations with external criteria including measures of psychopathy, internalizing/externalizing psychopathology, antisocial behavior, and substance use. Findings demonstrate the viability of measuring triarchic traits in the RFAB sample, extend the known nomological network of these traits into the developmental realm, and provide a foundation for follow-up studies examining the etiology of psychopathic traits and their relations with multimodal measures of cognitive-affective function and proneness to clinical problems.
According to a widely-shared view, human rights encompass a very limited range of ethical concerns: not all human interests, only urgent interests;1 not our preferences, only our needs;2 not all wrongs, only severe injustices;3 not a good life in the fullest sense, but only a minimally decent or autonomous life.4 In short, human rights are not about realizing the best, they are about shielding us from the worst. I will call this general theoretical stance Minimalism.
Mass asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplified testing of healthcare personnel (HCP) was performed at a large tertiary health system. A low period-prevalence of positive HCP was observed. Of those who tested positive, half had mild symptoms in retrospect. HCP with even mild symptoms should be isolated and tested.
In recent years, a variety of efforts have been made in political science to enable, encourage, or require scholars to be more open and explicit about the bases of their empirical claims and, in turn, make those claims more readily evaluable by others. While qualitative scholars have long taken an interest in making their research open, reflexive, and systematic, the recent push for overarching transparency norms and requirements has provoked serious concern within qualitative research communities and raised fundamental questions about the meaning, value, costs, and intellectual relevance of transparency for qualitative inquiry. In this Perspectives Reflection, we crystallize the central findings of a three-year deliberative process—the Qualitative Transparency Deliberations (QTD)—involving hundreds of political scientists in a broad discussion of these issues. Following an overview of the process and the key insights that emerged, we present summaries of the QTD Working Groups’ final reports. Drawing on a series of public, online conversations that unfolded at www.qualtd.net, the reports unpack transparency’s promise, practicalities, risks, and limitations in relation to different qualitative methodologies, forms of evidence, and research contexts. Taken as a whole, these reports—the full versions of which can be found in the Supplementary Materials—offer practical guidance to scholars designing and implementing qualitative research, and to editors, reviewers, and funders seeking to develop criteria of evaluation that are appropriate—as understood by relevant research communities—to the forms of inquiry being assessed. We dedicate this Reflection to the memory of our coauthor and QTD working group leader Kendra Koivu.1
The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.