Both vertebrate- and wind-dispersed seeds moved farther from rain forest into old field than from old field into forest. Vertebrate-dispersed seeds from the rain forest moved farther into the field than wind-dispersed seeds, but seeds of both types moved similar distances from field into forest.
Habitat structure affected seed deposition patterns in the field, where shrubs provided perches for flying vertebrates. Vertebrate-dispersed seed deposition was significantly greater, and deposition of plumed, wind-dispersed seeds was significantly less, under shrubs than in the open. Deposition of vertebrate-dispersed seeds under fruiting shrubs was significantly less than under non-fruiting shrubs.