The phylogeny of Lecanoromycetes (Ascomycota, Fungi) is investigated utilizing parsimony and Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo analyses, of combined nLSU rDNA and mtSSU rDNA sequence datasets. The results suggest that Acarosporaceae, Candelariaceae, Phlyctis and Pycnora are not members of the monophyletic Lecanorales, and that Timdalia and Pleopsidium are members of a monophyletic Acarosporaceae. Pycnora, Candelariaceae and Acarosporaceae form a monophyletic group. Umbilicariaceae, Hypocenomyce scalaris, H. friesii, Ophioparmaceae, Boreoplaca, Elixia and Fuscidea form either a basal paraphyletic assemblage in Lecanoromycetes, or a monophyletic group which is the sister-group to Lecanorales and the rest of Lecanoromycetes (excluding Acarosporaceae). The Acarosporaceae forms a group with Pycnora and Candelariaceae, which may be outside the Lecanoromycetes. Chaetothyriales, Verrucariales, Eurotiales, Lichinales and Mycocaliciales form a monophyletic group, but with low support. We briefly discuss incongruence between datasets from different genetic markers, comparing the differences between the separate parsimony analyses, where the ILD test indicated a very significant incongruence. The phylogenetic significance of ascus-types that have influenced most recent Ascomycota classifications heavily is also discussed, and we finally point out risks with formalizing classifications too early.