This chapter reviews stigma in epilepsy and HIV/AIDS in terms of its origins and consequences, as well as stigma-reduction efforts in these conditions, focusing on literature from low- and middle-income countries. The consequences of stigma for people with epilepsy include depression, anxiety, impaired physical health, somatic symptoms, reduced self-esteem, and poor quality of life. The chapter presents the common features among the initiatives that have been used to address stigma and discrimination in these disorders (as well as in mental illness). The Global Campaign Against Epilepsy was launched in 1997. This is a partnership between the International League Against Epilepsy, the International Bureau for Epilepsy, and the World Health Organization (WHO). Most of the literature reviewing the effectiveness of stigma-reduction interventions highlights the lack of proper planning and evaluation of interventions. Finally, the chapter reviews the general principles in addressing stigma in epilepsy and HIV.