To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
An error has been noted in the above mentioned article by Krupski et al. In the discussion section in the fourth paragraph, ‘greater than 15 cigarettes per day’ should read ‘greater than or equal to 10 cigarettes per day’.
Issues concerning firearms are very different in the UK and America; American citizens keep guns in the home for self-defence purposes. While firearms are kept under tight restriction and control of the police in England and Wales, the United States (US) continues to allow greater freedom to law-abiding citizens to carry weapons and keep guns in the home. Greater gun availability results in a greater risk of their use in suicides. While guns also play a significant role in crime in the US, the overall level of gun crime in England and Wales is very low, 0.3% of all crime recorded by the police. One way in which authorities in both Britain and America have attempted to control gun availability has been to address licensing laws. Most perpetrators of spree shootings kill themselves at the scene of the crime; therefore evidence can only be gathered afterwards from eyewitnesses.
Dependence increases the likelihood of adverse consequences of cannabis use, but its aetiology is poorly understood.
To examine adolescent precursors of young-adult cannabis dependence.
Putative risk factors were measured in a representative sample (n=2032) of secondary students in the State of Victoria, Australia, six times between 1992 and 1995. Cannabis dependence was assessed in 1998, at age 20–21 years.
Of 1601 young adults, 115 met criteria for cannabis dependence. Male gender (OR=2.6, P < 0.01), regular cannabis use (weekly: OR=4.9; daily: OR=4.6, P=0.02), persistent antisocial behaviour (linear effect P=0.03) and persistent cigarette smoking (linear effect P=0.02) independently predicted cannabis dependence. Neither smoking severity (P=0.83) nor persistent psychiatric morbidity (linear effect P=0.26) independently predicted dependence. Regular cannabis use increased risk only in the absence of persistent problematic alcohol use.
Weekly cannabis use marks a threshold for increased risk of later dependence, with selection of cannabis in preference to alcohol possibly indicating an early addiction process.