Homework assignments have been a key component of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for decades, but very few studies examined the effect of compliance on outcome in regard to smoking behaviour. To fill this gap in the existing literature, the present report evaluated the role of homework compliance on short-term outcome in the context of evidence-based care for smoking cessation. Compliance with out-of-session assignments was assessed in a four-session CBT-nicotine replacement therapy protocol for smoking cessation among adult daily smokers (n= 94). Consistent with expectation, homework compliance was associated with better short-term outcomes, including amount of cigarettes consumed as well as abstinence. Importantly, these effects remained after controlling for a wide range of potentially confounding variables (e.g., motivation to quit, nicotine dependence at intake, attendance problems, and in-session participation). Estimates of quantity versus quality of homework compliance did not differentially predict outcomes. Out-of-session homework assignments incrementally predict short-term smoking abstinence in the context of evidence-based care for smoking cessation.