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High-yielding short-duration cultivars are required due to the development of mechanized large-scale double-season rice (i.e. early- and late-season rice) production in China. The objective of this study was to identify whether existing early-season rice cultivars can be used as resources to select high-yielding, short-duration (less than 115 days) cultivars of machine-transplanted late-season rice. Field experiments were conducted in Yongan, Hunan Province, China in the early and late rice-growing seasons in 2015 and 2016. Eight early-season rice cultivars (Liangyou 6, Lingliangyou 211, Lingliangyou 268, Xiangzaoxian 32, Xiangzaoxian 42, Zhongjiazao 17, Zhongzao 39, and Zhuliangyou 819) with growth durations of less than 115 days were used in 2015, and four cultivars (Lingliangyou 268, Zhongjiazao 17, Zhongzao 39, and Zhuliangyou 819) with good yield performance in the late season in 2015 were grown in 2016. All cultivars had a growth duration of less than 110 days when grown in the late season in both years. Zhongjiazao 17 produced the maximum grain yield of 9.61 Mg ha−1 with a daily grain yield of 108 kg ha−1 d−1 in the late season in 2015. Averaged across both years, Lingliangyou 268 had the highest grain yield of 8.57 Mg ha−1 with a daily grain yield of 95 kg ha−1 d−1 in the late season. The good yield performance of the early-season rice cultivars grown in the late season was mainly attributable to higher apparent radiation use efficiency. Growth duration and grain yield of early-season rice cultivars grown in the late season were not significantly related to those grown in the early season. Our study suggests that it is feasible to select high-yielding short-duration cultivars from existing early-season rice cultivars for machine-transplanted late-season rice production. Special tests by growing alternative early-season rice cultivars in the late season should be done to determine their growth duration and grain yield for such selection.
Bismuth (Bi)-based photocatalytic materials are widely used in the field of photocatalytic degradation of wastewater. In this study, β-Bi2O3/BiOBr heterojunction photocatalysts were prepared by an in situ chemical transformation method. BiOBr molecules are arrayed to cross each other to form a pore around β-Bi2O3. The prepared photocatalyst had a large specific surface area and excellent adsorption and photocatalytic properties. The β-Bi2O3/BiOBr with a molecular ratio of 11.1% had the highest catalytic activity. The result of a degradation experiment, performed with Rhodamine B (RhB) as the target pollutant, revealed that the degradation rate reached 99.85% after 25 min under visible light irradiation. The pore structure can adsorb contaminants and the heterojunction facilitates the separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs to enhance the photocatalytic properties. The high adsorption performance and heterojunction achieved higher photocatalytic efficiency. This semiconductor photocatalyst with high adsorption performance provides a new approach to control water pollution.
To explore whether and how group cognitive-behavioural therapy (GCBT) plus medication differs from medication alone for the treatment of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD).
Hundred and seventy patients were randomly assigned to the GCBT plus duloxetine (n=89) or duloxetine group (n=81). The primary outcomes were Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) response and remission rates. The explorative secondary measures included score reductions from baseline in the HAMA total, psychic, and somatic anxiety subscales (HAMA-PA, HAMA-SA), the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Severity Subscale of Clinical Global Impression Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning, and the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 4-week, 8-week, and 3-month follow-up.
At 4 weeks, HAMA response (GCBT group 57.0% vs. control group 24.4%, p=0.000, Cohen’s d=0.90) and remission rates (GCBT group 21.5% vs. control group 6.2%, p=0.004; d=0.51), and most secondary outcomes (all p<0.05, d=0.36−0.77) showed that the combined therapy was superior. At 8 weeks, all the primary and secondary significant differences found at 4 weeks were maintained with smaller effect sizes (p<0.05, d=0.32−0.48). At 3-month follow-up, the combined therapy was only significantly superior in the HAMA total (p<0.045, d=0.43) and HAMA-PA score reductions (p<0.001, d=0.77). Logistic regression showed superiority of the combined therapy for HAMA response rates [odds ratio (OR)=2.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02−4.42, p=0.04] and remission rates (OR=2.80, 95% CI 1.27−6.16, p=0.01).
Compared with duloxetine alone, GCBT plus duloxetine showed significant treatment response for GAD over a shorter period of time, particularly for psychic anxiety symptoms, which may suggest that GCBT was effective in changing cognitive style.
Severe phase coarsening and separation in Sn–Bi alloys have brought increasing reliability concern in microelectronic packages. In this study, a phase field model is developed to simulate the microstructural evolution and evaluate the change in macroscopic physical properties of the flip chip Cu/Sn58Bi/Cu joint under the conditions of isothermal aging, as well as the coupled loads of elastic stress and electric current stressing. Results show that large-sized Bi-rich phase particles grow up at the expense of small-sized ones. Under the coupled loads, Bi atoms migrate along the electron flow direction, consequently Bi-rich phase segregates to form a Bi-rich phase layer at the anode. The current crowding ratio in the solder decreases rapidly first and then fluctuates slightly with time. Current density and von Mises stress exhibit inhomogeneous distribution, and both of them are higher in the Sn-rich phase than in the Bi-rich phase. Electric current transfers through the Sn-rich phase and detours the Bi-rich phase. As time proceeds, the resistance of the solder joint increases, and the average von Mises stress of the solder joint decreases. The Bi-rich phase coarsens much faster under the coupled loads than under the conditions of isothermal aging.
In magnetized plasma situations where magnetic fields intersect massive conducting boundaries, ‘line-tied’ boundary conditions are often used, analytically and in numerical simulations. For ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasmas, these conditions are arrived at given the relatively long time scales for magnetic fields penetrating resistively into good conductors. Under line-tied boundary conditions, numerical simulations often exhibit what could be construed as numerical ‘noise’ emanating from the boundaries. We show here that this ‘noise’ is real. By combining numerical and analytical methods, we highlight the existence of sharp spatial structures near the conductors and confirm the appearance of short wavelength structures riding on long wavelength modes. We conclude that, for numerical fidelity, the short multiscale structures need to be resolved. Generally, the short structure widths scale as the square root of the plasma
The development of mechanised large-scale farming has led to changes in rice production systems. Increases in time of farming operations often occur under large-scale farming conditions, which can lead to delayed transplanting (DTP). In this study, field experiments were conducted in the late rice-growing season in 2016 and 2017 to compare the growth stages, growing-season temperature and yield attributes between normal transplanting with 15- to 20-day-old seedlings and DTP with 30-day-old seedlings of two rice cultivars. DTP resulted in 6- and 12-day delays in heading stage for both cultivars in 2016 and 2017, respectively. As a consequence, low temperature stress occurred at anthesis under DTP in both years, which led to significantly reduced spikelet filling and grain yield under DTP for both cultivars. These results confirm that DTP can reduce spikelet filling and grain yield due to low temperature stress at anthesis in machine-transplanted late-season rice. This finding highlights that greater efforts should be made to develop high-yielding short-duration rice cultivars to meet the development of mechanised large-scale rice farming.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiparasitic activity of extracellular products of Streptomyces albus. Bioactivity-guided isolation of chloroform extracts affording a compound showing potent activity. The structure of the compound was elucidated as salinomycin (SAL) by EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. In vitro test showed that SAL has potent anti-parasitic efficacy against theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis with 10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h (effective concentration) EC50 (95% confidence intervals) of 2.12 (2.22–2.02), 1.93 (1.98–1.88), 1.42 (1.47–1.37), 1.35 (1.41–1.31) and 1.11 (1.21–1.01) mg L−1. In vitro antiparasitic assays revealed that SAL could be 100% effective against I. multifiliis encysted tomonts at a concentration of 8.0 mg L−1. In vivo test demonstrated that the number of I. multifiliis trophonts on Erythroculter ilishaeformis treated with SAL was markedly lower than that of control group at 10 days after exposed to theronts (P < 0.05). In the control group, 80% mortality was observed owing to heavy I. multifiliis infection at 10 days. On the other hand, only 30.0% mortality was recorded in the group treated with 8.0 mg L−1 SAL. The median lethal dose (LD50) of SAL for E. ilishaeformis was 32.9 mg L−1.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were added to carbon nanofibers (CNFs) as additives to improve their electrochemical properties. In the present work, CNFs were prepared by using pressurized gyration with polyacrylonitrile as the precursor. The microstructure and electrochemical properties of samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical workstation, respectively. The results showed that the network structure formed in the fiber, and the fiber diameter decreased with the increase of working pressure. The integral area of cyclic voltammetry curve reached the maximum and the charge/discharge time of constant current charge/discharge curve reached the longest in the case of the CNT concentration is 0.50 wt% and working pressure is 0.2 MPa. At the same time, it exhibited the best electrochemical performance with a specific capacitance of 79 F/g at a current density of 100 mA/g. Compared with the specific capacitance of pure CNFs, the specific capacitance of CNFs with the concentration of CNTs 0.50 wt% increased by about 40%.
Transplanting single seedlings rather than seedlings in clumps has been increasingly attractive in hybrid rice production in China due to reduced seed requirements and higher grain yield. This study was conducted to determine grain yield and nitrogen (N) utilization in response to reductions in the N rate in hybrid rice under single-seedling transplanting. Field experiments were done in 2015 and 2016 on a moderate to high fertility soil at the Experimental Farm of Hunan Agricultural University, China. The hybrid rice cultivar Liangyoupeijiu (LYPJ) was used in 2015, and two hybrid cultivars LYPJ and Xiangliangyou 900 were used the next year. In each year, the rice plants transplanted with a single seedling per hill were grown with three N rates, including the usual N rate (150 kg ha–1) and two reduced N rates (120 and 90 kg ha–1). Grain yield, yield attributes, and N uptake and use efficiency were determined for each N rate. Significant reduction in grain yield was observed in only one of three cultivar-year combinations when N rate was reduced by 20% (from 150 to 120 kg ha–1), and the magnitude of yield reduction was only 4%. Although significant reduction in grain yield was observed in two of the three cultivar-year combinations when N rate reduced by 40% (to 90 kg ha–1), the highest yield reduction was only 7%. Yield attributes were generally changed slightly when N rate was reduced by 20%, while compensation among yield attributes and N utilization characteristics could explain why a 40% reduction in N rate did not result in substantial yield loss. Partial factor productivity of applied N (PFPN) was increased by 21–24% and 56–63% with 20% and 40% reductions in the N rate, respectively. The higher PFPN with a reduced N rate was attributed to higher recovery efficiency of applied N (REN) or to both higher REN and internal N use efficiency. Our study suggests that reducing N rate does not necessarily result in yield loss due to compensation among yield components and increased N use efficiency in hybrid rice transplanted as single seedlings under moderate to high soil fertility conditions.
For a skew-symmetrizable cluster algebra
with principal coefficients at
, we prove that each seed
is uniquely determined by its
-matrix, which was proposed by Fomin and Zelevinsky (Compos. Math. 143 (2007), 112–164) as a conjecture. Our proof is based on the fact that the positivity of cluster variables and sign coherence of
-vectors hold for
, which was actually verified in Gross et al. (Canonical bases for cluster algebras, J. Amer. Math. Soc. 31(2) (2018), 497–608). Further discussion is provided in the sign-skew-symmetric case so as to obtain a weak version of the conjecture in this general case.
To develop a theoretical model explaining the longitudinal changes in the caregiving process for family caregivers of persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Taiwan.
A longitudinal, grounded theory approach using in-depth face-to-face interviews and an open-ended interview guide. We conducted 42 interviews over a two-year period; each participant was interviewed at least once every six months. All participants were interviewed in their home. The participants total of 13 family caregivers of persons with MCI.
One core theme emerged: “protective preparation.” This reflected the family caregiving process of preparation for a further decline in cognitive function, and protection from the impact of low self-esteem, accidents, and symptoms of comorbidities for the family member with MCI. Protective preparation contained three components: ambivalent normalization, vigilant preparation, and protective management.
Interventions to help family caregivers manage the changes in persons with MCI can reduce caregiver burden. Our findings could provide a knowledge base for use by healthcare providers to develop and implement strategies to reduce caregiver burden for family caregivers of persons with MCI.
A new plasmonic photocatalyst Ag/Bi7Ta3O18 was fabricated by photodeposition-hydrothermal method. The phase composition, microstructure, surface areas, average pore size, UV-vis diffuse reflection spectra, and photocatalytic activities of composite photocatalysts were investigated in detail. The results of the measurements indicated that the Ag0 nanoparticle successfully loads on the surface of Bi7Ta3O18, and the 0.06 Ag/Bi7Ta3O18 photocatalysts exhibited the best photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB). The improved photocatalytic activity could be contributed to the localized surface plasmon resonance caused by the collective oscillation of the surface electrons of Ag nanoparticles. Additionally, the photocatalytic reaction mechanism was studied by photoluminescence photocurrent, and electron spin resonance analysis. As a result, the Ag nanoparticles onto the Bi7Ta3O18 surface enlarged the electron–hole separation, and the (˙OH) was the dominated active species of degradation RhB in the photocatalytic process.
In Taiwan the discussion of civil society emerged in the 1980s and peaked in the early 1990s, when the society underwent political democratization. Civil society was considered a public sphere, enjoying relatively autonomy from the control of the state or the market. The birth of civil society in Taiwan came about by the proliferation of non-profit organizations, community organizations, and professional and voluntary groups through continuous social mobilization. Lawmaking was indispensable for the consolidation of civil society. New ordinances, ranging from human rights, environmental regulation to cultural preservation, were brought to the agenda. The emergence of civil society allowed people to leverage themselves from the control of the state and the market. In addition to this, the new Taiwanese identity that took shape in the 1990s reinforced the civil society that was in the making. However, across the turn of the millennium, as the state– society relationship reconfigured, civil society also differentiated. Both the market and the state tried to entrench civil society, which more often than not led to many different voices within civil society. Conflicts among various social groups have become a noticeable feature in the debates and decision-making processes of public affairs.
Against this backdrop we would like to trace the early history of the development of the idea of heritage preservation in Taiwan. The emergence of the heritage preservation movement and related policies is closely intertwined with the changing cultural politics that reflect the contested meanings of national and local identities in Taiwan. Before the lifting of martial law in 1987, civil society had played a significant role in heritagemaking. Since 1987, civil society has further pushed the state to change the laws and policies governing heritage preservation.
The first piece of legislation in this area, the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act, was promulgated in Taiwan in 1982, while the country was still under authoritarian rule. The implementation of the Heritage Act and associated cultural policies inevitably reflected the Chinese nationalist historical narrative; however, at the same time, it created negotiable spaces for diverse narratives through the imported notion of “cultural heritage”, which could be seen as an indirect challenge to the dominant narrative.
A study in rodent models showed that phytosterols protected against colon carcinogenesis, probably by inhibiting dysregulated cell cycle progression and inducing cellular apoptosis. However, epidemiological studies on the relationship between phytosterols and colorectal cancer risk are quite limited. The aim of this study was to investigate dietary phytosterol intake in relation to colorectal cancer risk in the Chinese population. A case–control study was conducted from July 2010 to June 2016, recruiting 1802 eligible colorectal cancer cases plus 1813 age (5-year interval) and sex frequency-matched controls. Dietary information was collected by using a validated FFQ. The OR and 95 % CI of colorectal cancer risk were assessed by multivariable logistic regression models. A higher total intake of phytosterols was found to be associated with a 50 % reduction in colorectal cancer risk. After adjusting for various confounders, the OR of the highest quartile intake compared with the lowest quartile intake was 0·50 (95 % CI 0·41, 0·61, Ptrend<0·01) for total phytosterols. An inverse association was also found between the consumption of β-sitosterol, campesterol, campestanol and colorectal cancer risk. However, stigmasterol intake was related to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. No statistically significant association was found between β-sitostanol and colorectal cancer risk. Stratified analysis by sex showed that the positive association of stigmasterol intake with colorectal cancer risk was found only in women. These data indicated that the consumption of total phytosterols, β-sitosterol, campesterol and campestanol is inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population.
To evaluate the effects of different anthropogenic activities on zooplankton and the pelagic ecosystem, we conducted seasonal cruises in 2010 to assess spatial heterogeneity among the mesozooplankton communities of Xiangshan Bay, a subtropical semi-enclosed bay in China. The evaluation included five different areas: a kelp farm, an oyster farm, a fish farm, the thermal discharge area of a power plant, and an artificial reef, and we aimed to identify whether anthropogenic activities dominated spatial variation in the mesozooplankton communities. The results demonstrated clear spatial heterogeneity among the mesozooplankton communities of the studied areas, dominantly driven by natural hydrographic properties, except in the area near the thermal discharge outlet of the power station. In the outlet area, thermal shock caused by the discharge influenced the mesozooplankton community by decreasing abundance and biomass throughout the four seasons, even causing a shift in the dominant species near the outlet during summer from Acartia pacifica to eurythermal and warm water taxa. Unique features of the mesozooplankton community in the oyster farm may be due to the combined effects of oyster culture and the natural environment in the branch harbour. However, kelp and fish culture, and the construction of an artificial reef did not exert any obvious influence on the mesozooplankton communities up to 2010, probably because of the small scale of the aquaculture and a time lag in the rehabilitation effects of the artificial reef. Thus, our results suggested that the dominant factors influencing spatial variations of mesozooplankton communities in Xiangshan Bay were still the natural hydrographic properties, but the thermal discharge was an anthropogenic activity that changed the pelagic ecosystem, and should be supervised.
Since democratization in 1996, political legitimacy has become the dominant issue in every presidential election in Taiwan. While the actual form of the debate varies, we can always grasp the gist with a nuclear theme: which political group that the presidential candidate represents can safeguard Taiwan's political sovereignty and meanwhile continue a fast-growing economy? On the surface, this question is not philosophical, and whoever proposes a convincing policy is more likely to win political legitimacy via an electoral victory. Deep down, however, many controversies associated with different political, ideological, and historical beliefs are entangled, and the battle for political legitimacy never ends with any particular election result. To understand the problem of political legitimacy in Taiwan, we have to identify the key dimensions of those controversies and explain how they affect the political trajectory in a given period of time.
The key dimensions of the political legitimacy problem can be characterized into four issue areas: (1) unification vs. independence, (2) Chinese vs. Taiwanese identity, (3) greater vs. lesser economic integration with China, and (4) the KMT's economic legacy vs. the DPP's antiauthoritarian legacy. These topics are closely related, and most of the time we can use the first term in each of these contrasts to describe the fundamental political views of KMT supporters, and the second term to describe the views of DPP supporters. Nevertheless, even among those who support the same political camp, discourses in these topics are easily malleable and reframed. Therefore, a proper characterization of this distinct political situation is crucial to illuminate how different power contenders justify their political legitimacy in running their presidential campaigns.
Over nineteen years of democracy in Taiwan, the political legitimacy crisis rose to a significant level during Chen Shui-bian's two-term presidency between 2000 and 2008. The most prominent sign was the intense polarized politics in which the political tension between supporters of the major contenders for power, the KMT and the DPP, was consistently high. Specifically, it was related to a deep political distrust in which each camp denied the other's right to rule. This sentiment was further aggravated by the electoral controversy in the 2004 presidential election and the subsequent political demonstrations. Some incidents even developed into serious political turmoil that could have jeopardized Taiwan's democracy. The crisis finally abated after KMT won a landslide victory under the leadership of Ma Ying-jeou in the 2008 presidential election.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver malignancy that mainly occurs in patients with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Risk factors for HCC include hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, the specific role of HBV infection in HCC development is not yet completely understood. In order to reveal the effects of HBV on HCC, we compare the genes of HCC patients infected with HBV with those who are not infected.
We encoded the genes of these two types of HCC in databases using enrichment scores of Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway terms. A random forest algorithm was employed in order to distinguish these two types in the classifier, and a series of feature selection approaches was used in order to select their optimal features. Novel HBV-associated and -non-associated HCC genes were predicted, respectively, based on their optimal features in the classifier. A shortest-path algorithm was also employed in order to find all of the shortest-paths genes connecting the known related genes.
A total of 54 different features between HBV-associated and -non-associated HCC genes were identified. In total, 1236 and 881 novel related genes were predicted for HBV-associated and -non-associated HCC, respectively. By integrating the predicted genes and shortest path genes in their gene interaction network, we identified 679 common genes involved in the two types of HCC.
We identified the significantly different genetic features between two types of HCC. We also predicted related genes for the two types based on their specific features. Finally, we determined the common genes and features that were involved in both of these two types of HCC.
Flavonoids may play an important role in the protective effects of vegetables, fruits and tea against colorectal cancer. However, associations between flavonoids and colorectal cancer risk are inconsistent, and a few studies have evaluated the effect of flavonoids from different dietary sources separately. This study aimed to evaluate associations of flavonoids intake from different dietary sources with colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population. From July 2010 to December 2015, 1632 eligible colorectal cancer cases and 1632 frequency-matched controls (age and sex) completed in-person interviews. A validated FFQ was used to estimate dietary flavonoids intake. Multivariate logistical regression models were used to calculate the OR and 95 % CI of colorectal cancer risk after adjusting for various confounders. No significant association was found between total flavonoids and colorectal cancer risk, with an adjusted OR of 1·06 (95 % CI 0·85, 1·32) comparing the highest with the lowest quartile. Anthocyanidins, flavanones and flavones intakes from total diet were found to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. Compared with the lowest quartile, the adjusted OR for the highest quartile were 0·80 (95 % CI 0·64, 1·00) for anthocyanidins, 0·28 (95 % CI 0·22, 0·36) for flavanones and 0·54 (95 % CI 0·43, 0·67) for flavones. All subclasses of flavonoids from vegetables and fruits were inversely associated with colorectal cancer. However, no significant association was found between tea flavonoids and colorectal cancer risk. These data indicate that specific flavonoids, specifically flavonoids from vegetables and fruits, may be linked with the reduced risk of colorectal cancer.
The AM Herculis binaries (AM Hers) have high and low accretion states. A model is proposed in which the white dwarf’s rotation acts like an angular momentum storage battery for the binary orbit. The accreted material from the Roche lobe-overflowing secondary charges up this battery, whereas the magnetic torque of the white dwarf on the secondary discharges it back into the binary’s orbit. The Roche lobe’s volume becomes alternately larger and smaller than the secondary’s volume. This alternation causes the mass flow to vary between a high and low rate.