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Sediments deposited from the Permian–Triassic boundary (~252 Ma) until the end-Smithian (Early Triassic; c. 250.7 Ma) in the Sonoma Foreland Basin show marked thickness variations between its southern (up to c. 250 m thick) and northern (up to c. 550 m thick) parts. This basin formed as a flexural response to the emplacement of the Golconda Allochthon during the Sonoma orogeny. Using a high-resolution backstripping approach, a numerical model and sediment thickness to obtain a quantitative subsidence analysis, we discuss the controlling factor(s) responsible for spatial variations in thickness. We show that sedimentary overload is not sufficient to explain the significant discrepancy observed in the sedimentary record of the basin. We argue that the inherited rheological properties of the basement terranes and spatial heterogeneity of the allochthon are of paramount importance in controlling the subsidence and thickness spatial distribution across the Sonoma Foreland Basin.
Continuum percolation models in which pairs of points of a two-dimensional Poisson point process are connected if they are within some range of each other have been extensively studied. This paper considers a variation in which a connection between two points depends not only on their Euclidean distance, but also on the positions of all other points of the point process. This model has been recently proposed to model interference in radio communications networks. Our main result shows that, despite the infinite-range dependencies, percolation occurs in the model when the density λ of the Poisson point process is greater than the critical density value λc of the independent model, provided that interference from other nodes can be sufficiently reduced (without vanishing).
Defining the structural style of fold–thrust belts and understanding the controlling factors are necessary steps towards prediction of their long-term and short-term dynamics, including seismic hazard, and to assess their potential in terms of hydrocarbon exploration. While the thin-skinned structural style has long been a fashionable view for outer parts of orogens worldwide, a wealth of new geological and geophysical studies has pointed out that a description in terms of thick-skinned deformation is, in many cases, more appropriate. This paper aims at providing a review of what we know about basement-involved shortening in foreland fold–thrust belts on the basis of the examination of selected Cenozoic orogens. After describing how structural interpretations of fold–thrust belts have evolved through time, this paper addresses how and the extent to which basement tectonics influence their geometry and their kinematics, and emphasizes the key control exerted by lithosphere rheology, including structural and thermal inheritance, and local/regional boundary conditions on the occurrence of thick-skinned tectonics in the outer parts of orogens.
This is a report of a fortunate story of an unusual AK-47 bullet trajectory which took place during the Paris (France) attack of November 13th, 2015. A young man, trying to protect his girlfriend, interfered between her and a shooter. He had been wounded in the posterior compartment of the thigh. The bullet penetrated him and, instead of exiting, rebound against his Smartphone, which was in the front pocket of his pants. Thanks to that, the missile bullet did not injure his girlfriend but ended its trajectory in the fat tissue of his thigh.
ThabouillotO, PerrierP, RocheNC, AgardD, BarbierO, MartinG, ViantE, LeclereJB. A Fortunate Story of an Unusual AK-47 Bullet Trajectory: Always Keep a Smartphone in Your Pocket. , 2016;31(3):343–345.
Madagascar is an important foraging ground for marine turtles in the Western Indian Ocean, yet the status of the country's nesting aggregations remains poorly documented. We assess the current status and trend in nesting throughout Madagascar, including data recorded by a community-based monitoring project in the Barren Isles (western Madagascar). We contextualize the findings in comparison with data from Madagascar's closest neighbouring states. Reports indicate that nesting levels have declined at many coastal sites, with no known recordings since 2000 at > 40 nesting sites. We estimate there are a minimum of 1,200 nests per year in Madagascar, with the largest recorded nesting aggregation (< 1,000 nests per year) found on islands off the west and northern coasts. The majority of nesting aggregations, including those recorded by the community-based monitoring project in the Barren Isles, are relatively small, in the order of < 50 nests per year, yet they are potentially important sources of regional genetic diversity. Nesting on many of the islands (e.g. Tromelin, Europa) around Madagascar has increased over the last 20 years, despite the fact that thousands of turtles probably originating from these sites are taken by fishers in the waters of Madagascar annually. We discuss the importance of protecting small nesting populations, and how community-based monitoring could be an important tool for conserving remote and vulnerable populations and building capacity for natural resource management.
Influenza is a major concern for Emergency Medical Services (EMS); EMS workers’ (EMS-Ws) vaccination rates remain low despite promotion. Determinants of vaccination for seasonal influenza (SI) or pandemic influenza (PI) are unknown in this setting.
The influence of the H1N1 pandemic on EMS-W vaccination rates, differences between SI and PI vaccination rates, and the vaccination determinants were investigated.
A survey was conducted in 2011 involving 65 Swiss EMS-Ws. Socio-professional data, self-declared SI/PI vaccination status, and motives for vaccine refusal or acceptation were collected.
Response rate was 95%. The EMS-Ws were predominantly male (n=45; 73%), in good health (87%), with a mean age of 36 (SD=7.7) years. Seventy-four percent had more than six years of work experience. Self-declared vaccination rates were 40% for both SI and PI (PI+/SI+), 19% for PI only (PI+/SI-), 1.6% for SI only (PI-/SI+), and 39% were not vaccinated against either (PI-/SI-). Women’s vaccination rates specifically were lower in all categories but the difference was not statistically significant. During the previous three years, 92% of PI+/SI+ EMS-Ws received at least one SI vaccination; it was 8.3% in the case of PI-/SI- (P=.001) and 25% for PI+/SI- (P=.001). During the pandemic, SI vaccination rate increased from 26% during the preceding year to 42% (P=.001). Thirty percent of the PI+/SI+ EMS-Ws declared that they would not get vaccination next year, while this proportion was null for the PI-/SI- and PI+/SI- groups. Altruism and discomfort induced by the surgical mask required were the main motivations to get vaccinated against PI. Factors limiting PI or SI vaccination included the option to wear a mask, avoidance of medication, fear of adverse effects, and concerns about safety and effectiveness.
Average vaccination rate in this study’s EMS-Ws was below recommended values, particularly for women. Previous vaccination status was a significant determinant of PI and future vaccinations. The new mask policy seemed to play a dual role, and its net impact is probably limited. This population could be divided in three groups: favorable to all vaccinations; against all, even in a pandemic context; and ambivalent with a “pandemic effect.” These results suggest a consistent vaccination pattern, only altered by exceptional circumstances.
CarronPN. Vaccination Against Seasonal or Pandemic Influenza in Emergency Medical Services. . 2016;31(2):155–162.
Structural gray matter characteristics of anxiety remain unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of current depressive symptoms and history of depression on the gray matter characteristics of trait anxiety.
Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from 393 individuals aged 65 years or older were used. Regions of interest (ROIs) included the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and temporal cortex. Trait anxiety was measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Depression and depressive symptoms were measured using DSM-IV criteria and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CESD).
After adjustments for sociodemographics and health-related variables, anxiety had a significant influence on the gray matter characteristics in all cortical ROIs. First, in participants without depression antecedents, higher trait anxiety was associated with a larger cortical thickness in all cortical ROIs. Second, in participants with a previous history of depression, higher trait anxiety was associated with a smaller cortical thickness in all cortical ROIs.
These results suggest that anxiety is related to cortical thickness differently in healthy older adults and in older adults with psychiatric antecedents. Anxiety associated with thinner cortical areas could reflect symptoms of a specific type of depression or a vulnerability to develop depression.
We describe how an electromagnetic wave after a lightning strike affected a university hospital, including the communication shutdown that followed, the way it was handled, and the lessons learned from this incident. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;9:440–443)
The strength of the association between intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired nosocomial infections (NIs) and mortality might differ according to the methodological approach taken.
TO assess the association between ICU-acquired NIs and mortality using the concept of population-attributable fraction (PAF) for patient deaths caused by ICU-acquired NIs in a large cohort of critically ill patients.
Eleven ICUs of a French university hospital.
We analyzed surveillance data on ICU-acquired NIs collected prospectively during the period from 1995 through 2003. The primary outcome was mortality from ICU-acquired NI stratified by site of infection. A matched-pair, case-control study was performed. Each patient who died before ICU discharge was defined as a case patient, and each patient who survived to ICU discharge was denned as a control patient. The PAF was calculated after adjustment for confounders by use of conditional logistic regression analysis.
Among 8,068 ICU patients, a total of 1,725 deceased patients were successfully matched with 1,725 control Patients. The adjusted PAF due to ICU-acquired NI for patients who died before ICU discharge was 14.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.4%—14.8%). Stratified by the type of infection, the PAF was 6.1% (95% CI, 5.7%–6.5%) for pulmonary infection, 3.2% (95% CI, 2.8%–3.5%) for central venous catheter infection, 1.7% (95% CI, 0.9%–2.5%) for bloodstream infection, and 0.0% (95% CI, –0.4% to 0.4%) for urinary tract infection.
ICU-acquired NI had an important effect on mortality. However, the statistical association between ICU-acquired NI and mortality tended to be less pronounced in findings based on the PAF than in study findings based on estimates of relative risk. Therefore, the choice of methods does matter when the burden of NI needs to be assessed.
In this paper, we present a near-field microwave microscopy method for the characterization of dielectric materials samples in the Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. The system proposed is composed of a probe coupled to a dielectric resonator (DR) operating in the TE011 mode. Latter this is used to fix the resonance frequency of the resonator at 2.45 GHz. This system is used for the characterization of dielectric samples with accuracy and high spatial resolution, knowing that they do not have predetermined forms, but a small plane surface.The same device is used for a multi-frequency characterization (4–20 GHz) using resonance frequencies of the cavity instead of one resonance frequency of the DR.
The aim of this project was to evaluate the impact of probiotic (Phaeobacter gallaeciensis, X34 strain) treatment on the complete development (from veliger to metamorphosis) of Pecten maximus larvae in the context of a bacterial challenge and in conditions more representative of hatchery practices. To that effect, the present study was divided into two main steps. In the first, we used in vitro analyses (antibiograms and microplate assays) to validate the inhibition abilities of X34 on the growth of four Vibrio pathogen species. During the second step, we added pathogens (Vibrio pectenicida) into rearing tanks after two weeks of pre-treatment with the probiotic and then followed the larval development of Pecten maximus through the monitoring of survival rates, shell lengths and metamorphosis ability. Moreover, antioxidant (catalase and superoxide dismutase) and lipids peroxidation activities were also measured after bacterial challenge in order to evaluate the physiological response of larvae to pathogen exposition. Our results indicated an activation of the two selected antioxidant enzymes after bacterial challenge, but the increase was significantly lower in probiotic treated larvae. At the end of the experiment, the strain X34 treatment prevented a mass mortality event and showed a significant increase in the number of individuals reaching competence, when compared to untreated larvae.
In Timpoweap Canyon near Hurricane (Utah, USA), spectacular outcrop conditions of Early Triassic rocks document the geometric relationships between a massive Smithian fenestral-microbial unit and underlying, lateral and overlying sedimentary units. This allows us to reconstruct the evolution of depositional environments and high-frequency relative sea-level fluctuations in the studied area. Depositional environments evolved from a coastal plain with continental deposits to peritidal settings with fenestral-microbial limestones, which are overlain by intertidal to shallow subtidal marine bioclastic limestones. This transgressive trend of a large-scale depositional sequence marks a long-term sea-level rise that is identified worldwide after the Permian–Triassic boundary. The fenestral-microbial sediments were deposited at the transition between continental settings (with terrigenous deposits) and shallow subtidal marine environments (with bioturbated and bioclastic limestones). Such a lateral zonation questions the interpretation of microbial deposits as anachronistic and disaster facies in the western USA basin. The depositional setting may have triggered the distribution of microbial deposits and contemporaneous marine biota. The fenestral-microbial unit is truncated by an erosional surface reflecting a drop in relative sea level at the scale of a medium depositional sequence. The local inherited topography allowed the recording of small-scale sequences characterized by clinoforms and short-distance lateral facies changes. Stratal stacking pattern and surface geometries allow the reconstruction of relative sea-level fluctuations and tracking of shoreline migrations. The stacking pattern of these small-scale sequences and the amplitude of corresponding high-frequency sea-level fluctuations are consistent with climatic control. Large- and medium-scale sequences suggest a regional tectonic control.
Two new microsporidia, Anostracospora rigaudi n. g., n. sp., and Enterocytospora artemiae n. g., n. sp. infecting the intestinal epithelium of Artemia parthenogenetica Bowen and Sterling, 1978 and Artemia franciscana Kellogg, 1906 in southern France are described. Molecular analyses revealed the two species belong to a clade of microsporidian parasites that preferentially infect the intestinal epithelium of insect and crustacean hosts. These parasites are morphologically distinguishable from other gut microsporidia infecting Artemia. All life cycle stages have isolated nuclei. Fixed spores measure 1·3×0·7 μm with 5–6 polar tube coils for A. rigaudi and 1·2×0·9 μm with 4 polar tube coils for E. artemiae. Transmission of both species is horizontal, most likely through the ingestion of spores released with the faeces of infected hosts. The minute size of these species, together with their intestinal localization, makes their detection and identification difficult. We developed two species-specific molecular markers allowing each type of infection to be detected within 3–6 days post-inoculation. Using these markers, we show that the prevalence of these microsporidia ranges from 20% to 75% in natural populations. Hence, this study illustrates the usefulness of molecular approaches to study prevalent, but cryptic, infections involving microsporidian parasites of gut tissues.
Inertial shape oscillations of heptane drops rising in water are investigated experimentally. Diameters from 0.59 to 3.52 mm are considered, corresponding to a regime where the rising motion should not affect shape oscillations for pure immiscible fluids. The interface, however, turns out to be contaminated. The drag coefficient is considerably increased compared to that of a clean drop due to the well-known Marangoni effect resulting from a gradient of surfactant concentration generated by the fluid motion along the interface. Thanks to the decomposition of the shape into spherical harmonics, the eigenfrequencies and the damping rates of oscillation modes , 3, 4 and 5 have been measured. Frequencies are not affected by contamination, while damping rates are increased by a considerable amount that depends neither on drop instantaneous velocity nor on diameter. This augmentation, however, depends on the mode number: it is maximum for mode two (multiplied by 2.4) and then relaxes towards the value of a clean drop as increases. A previous similar investigation of a drop attached to a capillary has not revealed such an increase of the damping rates, indicating that the coupling between rising motion and surface contamination is responsible for this effect.
The 3.46 Ga Marble Bar Chert Member of the East Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, is one of the earliest and best-preserved sedimentary successions on Earth. Here, we interpret the finely laminated thin-bedded cherts, mixed conglomeratic beds, chert breccia beds and chert folded beds of the Marble Bar Chert Member as the product of low-density turbidity currents, high-density turbidity currents, mass transport complexes and slumps, respectively. Integrated into a channel-levee depositional model, the Marble Bar Chert Member constitutes the oldest documented deep-sea fan on Earth, with thin-bedded cherts, breccia beds and slumps composing the outer levee facies tracts, and scours and conglomeratic beds representing the channel systems.
The number N of detectable (i.e. communicating) extraterrestrial civilizations in the Milky Way galaxy is usually calculated by using the Drake equation. This equation was established in 1961 by Frank Drake and was the first step to quantifying the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI) field. Practically, this equation is rather a simple algebraic expression and its simplistic nature leaves it open to frequent re-expression. An additional problem of the Drake equation is the time-independence of its terms, which for example excludes the effects of the physico-chemical history of the galaxy. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the main shortcoming of the Drake equation is its lack of temporal structure, i.e., it fails to take into account various evolutionary processes. In particular, the Drake equation does not provides any error estimation about the measured quantity. Here, we propose a first treatment of these evolutionary aspects by constructing a simple stochastic process that will be able to provide both a temporal structure to the Drake equation (i.e. introduce time in the Drake formula in order to obtain something like N(t)) and a first standard error measure.