ITS rDNA sequence data shows that Diploicia and Diplotomma species form a monophyletic clade distinct from other Buellia species. This indicates that Diplotomma merits acceptance as a genus, and suggests that Diploicia should be treated as a synonym of Diplotomma, the earlier name. The data also shows Diploicia subcanescens, considered the fertile counterpart in a species pair with D. canescens, is nested within D. canescens and should be treated as a synonym despite reported chemical differences. In addition, the molecular data support the distinctness of Diplotomma rivas-martinezii, a species restricted to gypsum rocks in Spain, from the widespread D. venustum, which grows on calcareous rocks. Aposymbiotic cultures suggest that D. rivas-martinezii also differs from D. venustum in its germination and isolation success rates. One new combination is made: Diplotomnta pulverulenta (Anzi) D. Hawksw. (syn. Abrothallus pulverulentus Anzi) for the lichenicolous species previously known as Buellia pulverulenta.