The development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is potentially influenced by nutrition. The aim of our study was to assess food and nutrient intakes of children at increased risk of T1D.
Dietary intake of the last 4 weeks was assessed using a diet history interview. The daily nutrient and food intakes were compared with the German Dietary Reference Intakes, the Optimized Mixed Diet recommendations and those of a representative sample of children from the EsKiMo study.
Children included in the analysis participated in the prospective TEENDIAB study.
First-degree relatives of people with T1D (n 268), aged 8–12 years.
The TEENDIAB children consumed 52·0 % of their total energy from carbohydrates, 32·6 % from fat and 14·3 % from protein. Compared with the reference values, their intake was lowest for folate at 61·3 % of the reference, for iodine at 58·1 % and for vitamin D at 8·9 %, and exceeded the reference for vitamin K about 5-fold, for Na about 3·5-fold and for protein about 1·5-fold. Their nutrient intakes were similar to those of a control cohort without increased T1D risk. The consumption of non-desirable food groups (meat products, sweets/snacks) was above the recommendations and the consumption of desirable food groups (fruits, vegetables, carbohydrate-rich foods) was below the recommendations.
The TEENDIAB children had intakes considerably below the recommendations for vitamin D, iodine, folate and plant-based foods, and intakes above for vitamin K, Na, protein, meat products and sweets/snacks. They showed similar dietary patterns to non-risk children.