No study is available that has assessed the association of dietary diversity score (DDS) and alternative healthy eating index (AHEI) with glioma. The present study aimed to assess this association in Iranian adults. Overall, 128 pathologically confirmed cases of glioma were enrolled from hospitals and 256 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited from other wards of the hospital between 2009 and 2011. Dietary assessment was done using a validated block-format 123-item semi-quantitative FFQ. Dietary indices including DDS and AHEI-2010 were constructed according to standard methods. After controlling for potential confounders, a significant inverse association was found between DDS and risk of glioma (OR 0·42, 95 % CI 0·19, 0·94). Such finding was also seen when further adjustment was made for BMI; such that participants in the highest quartile of DDS were 56 % less likely to have glioma compared with those in the lowest quartile (OR 0·44, 95 % CI, 0·20, 0·97). In addition, a significant inverse association was found between adherence to AHEI and glioma; such that in the fully adjusted model, participants in the fourth quartile of AHEI had 74 % lower risk of glioma compared with those in the first quartile (OR 0·26, 95 % CI 0·12, 0·56). In conclusion, we found that greater adherence to the healthy, as measured by AHEI, and diverse, as measured by DDS, diets was associated with decreased odds of glioma.