The involvement of adrenocortical and thyroid hormones in the pathogenesis of ketosis as well as the ovarian consequences of this metabolic disorder were studied in ≥2 parity cows (n=199) in 3 large scale dairy herds. To compare the plasma / serum concentrations of certain hormones [Cortisol, thyroxin (T4), triiodo-thyronine (T3), insulin, isulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-l)J and metabolites [glucose (G), acetoacetic acid (ACAC), βOH-butyrate (BHB), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), trigliceride (TG), total cholesterol (TCh)J, and the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood samples were taken 1 to 3 days after calving and again at 7-day intervals on four other occasions. The ACTH-challenged Cortisol responsiveness and the TRH-induced T4/T3 increase were determined between days 1 to 3 and again between days 28 to 35. The resumption of ovarian cyclicity was followed up by individual progesterone (P4) profiles based on milk samples taken 3 times a week for about 80 to 85 days postpartum. A concentration of 1 mmol/l of BHB level was estimated as a border between hyper- (>1 mmol/l) and normal ketonaemic (<1 mmol/l) conditions. 5 different ketone patterns were distinguished: (1) non-ketotic (n=98; normal ketonaemia in all samples), (2) early type ketosis (n=45; hyperketonemia was detected only in the first week after calving), (3) late type (lacta-tional) ketosis (n=11; after a normal ketonaemic period increasing hyperketonaemia was detected in the 5th, or in the 4th and 5th weeks), (4) temporary ketosis (n=ll; hyperketonaemia was detected for 1-2 weeks in the 2nd and 3rd or in the 3rd and 4th weeks); (5) long-lasting ketosis (n=34; hyperketonaemia had been detected since calving for 4 to 5 weeks or until death or emergency slaughtering). Simultaneously with the hyperketonaemic stage increased NEFA, ACAC, depressed TCh, glucose and decreased insulin, IGF-1, T4 and T3 concentrations were detected in almost all the cases. Obvious metabolic and endocrine alterations were found, however, only in long-lasting ketosis. The TRH-stimulated T4 and T3 responses remained almost unaffected proving intact thyroid function in early and late type as well as in temporary ketosis. Depressed thyroid response and delayed onset of cyclic ovarian function were detected only in cases of long-lasting ketosis. The cows characterized by lower than normal (< mean-SD of non-ketotic cows) ACTH-stimulated cortisol response on days 1-3 after calving showed poorer chancefor spontaneous recovery. There was a significant negative correlation between the IGF-1 level in the 1st week after calving and the duration of the postpartum acyclic period. In late type (lactational) ketosis the cessation of ovarian cyclicity was the most characteristic genital malfunction.