The phylogeny of the Micarea prasina group was investigated using mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences from 14 taxa representing this group, four other members of the genus Micarea, and Psilolechia lucida as an outgroup. A total of 31 new mtSSU rDNA sequences were generated, including 10 from the M. micrococca complex. Bayesian, maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods were used to analyse the data. The results show that M. micrococca is not monophyletic and forms three strongly supported lineages: 1) M. micrococca s. str., 2) M. byssacea (Th. Fr.) Czarnota, Guzow-Krzemińska & Coppins comb. nov., and 3) a putative taxon that requires further studies. Micarea viridileprosa is a sister species to M. micrococca s. str. and the recently described M. nowakii is a sister species to M. prasina s. str. The placement of M. tomentosa within the M. prasina group is confirmed. Micarea hedlundii appears to be more closely related to the M. micrococca complex than M. prasina s. str. Descriptions, illustrations, taxonomic remarks, distribution and habitat data for M. micrococca s. str. and M. byssacea are provided. A lectotype for Biatora byssacea Hampe non Zwackh and a neotype for Catillaria prasina β [var.] byssacea are selected.