This is a two-year elementary college physics course for students majoring in science and engineering. The intention of the writers has been to present elementary physics as far as possible in the way in which it is used by physicists working on the forefront of their field. We have sought to make a course which would vigorously emphasize the foundations of physics. Our specific objectives were to introduce coherently into an elementary curriculum the ideas of special relativity, of quantum physics, and of statistical physics.
This course is intended for any student who has had a physics course in high school. A mathematics course including the calculus should be taken at the same time as this course.
There are several new college physics courses under development in the United States at this time. The idea of making a new course has come to many physicists, affected by the needs both of the advancement of science and engineering and of the increasing emphasis on science in elementary schools and in high schools. Our own course was conceived in a conversation between Philip Morrison of Cornell University and C. Kittel late in 1961. We were encouraged by John Mays and his colleagues of the National Science Foundation and by Walter C. Michels, then the Chairman of the Commission on College Physics. An informal committee was formed to guide the course through the initial stages.
Supercooling ability is a critical component among the suite of adaptations contributing to subzero temperature-tolerance of insects, whether they follow freeze-tolerance or freeze-avoidance strategies. Supercooling points (SCP, nucleation temperature, or crystallization temperature) of insects and other terrestrial arthropods range tremendously, from −2 °C to −100 °C or lower. Supercooling is affected by a number of factors, including the volume and water content of the organism, and the ability of the body surface to prevent inoculative freezing by external ice. However, the topics of this review, ice nucleators and antifreeze proteins, are often of critical importance. Antifreezes can be both small-molecular-mass solutes, such as polyhydroxyl alcohols that depress the freezing point of water on a strictly colligative basis, and high-molecular-mass molecules such as antifreeze proteins that suppress freezing by a non-colligative mechanism. Freeze-tolerant species often exhibit high SCPs (above −10 °C) and have selected for extracellular ice nucleators, while freeze-avoiding insects generally have selected against ice nucleators and for antifreezes, allowing them to supercool below ambient temperatures to which they are exposed over the winter. This review will attempt to provide a broad update on ice nucleators, antifreeze proteins and related adaptations in insects and other arthropods, primarily from the standpoint of how they function in organisms to promote winter survival.
Protein ice nucleators
Ice nucleators (INs) limit supercooling by organizing water into an ice-like structure, the embryo crystal, that promotes freezing at a temperature higher than that where ice would otherwise form (Knight, 1967).
Catholic and Protestant churches under communism: communist policies and the response of the churches
Communist rule was established in eastern Europe in the second half of the 1940s, and came to an end in 1989. Communist policy towards religion, and the response of the churches, varied widely in eastern Europe both geographically and over time.
One factor influencing the experience of Christians was their relative strength within the various countries. In some countries (Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Croatia, Lithuania) the historical close identification between the nation and the Catholic church continued. In East Germany, which lacked a distinctive national identity, the Protestant church was the predominant denomination. Other countries, particularly some of those straddling or bordering the ‘fault-line’ between Western and Eastern Christianity, remained religiously mixed. Hungary was Catholic, Reformed and Lutheran. In the Transylvanian part of Romania there was a large Reformed and Lutheran presence. Particularly strong in Transylvania, but also present elsewhere in the region, were Eastern-rite Catholics. Further south in the Balkans, the majority religion remained Orthodoxy, but in Albania Catholicism as well as Islam was important.
For political rather than purely ideological reasons the Eastern-rite Catholics were declared illegal throughout communist eastern Europe. (The largest Eastern-rite church to suffer this fate was the Ukrainian Catholic church in the Soviet Union, dissolved in 1946.) The only country, however, in which the theoretical communist ideological goal of the disappearance of all religion was said to have been achieved was Albania, where from 1967 it became illegal to manifest a religious faith in any way.
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