The growing request for healthier fatty acid composition of animal products is raising the necessity of a deeper knowledge of the main factors controlling fatty acids storage in muscle and backfat. Perilipin (PLIN) 5, and the whole Perilipin family, seem to play a crucial role in the regulation of lipids deposition as code for proteins coating intracellular lipid droplets surface. Nevertheless, the knowledge of these genes in pig is still incomplete. The present research was aimed at investigating in different pig breeds the PLIN5 gene, analysing its expression level and the associations of the variability in its downstream gene region with pork meat and carcass quality traits. Moreover, the PLIN5 protein localisation in porcine skeletal muscle was investigated through immunofluorescence, resulting to be widespread in Semimembranosus muscle (SM) myofibers. The identified single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs327694326 (NC_010444.4:g.74314701T>C) located in PLIN5 downstream region was analysed in different pig populations, represented by 512 Italian Large White (ILW) pigs, 300 Italian Duroc (IDU) samples, 100 Italian Landrace, 100 Pietrain and 60 pigs belonging to three Italian native breeds (20 samples of Cinta Senese, 20 Calabrese and 20 Casertana pigs). The C allele was found in ILW, IDU and Pietrain pigs. In ILW pigs this SNP showed results indicating a possible association with oleic and cis-vaccenic fatty acid contents in backfat tissue. Furthermore, as PLINs are known to regulate lipases activity, we tested if the rs327694326 SNP was associated with differences in Hormone-sensitive lipase (LIPE) gene expression levels. In SM of ILW pigs, PLIN5 C allele was associated with significantly lower LIPE transcription levels than T allele (P=0.02 for Student’s t test of TT v. CT samples, P<0.0001 for TT v. CC pigs), whereas in IDU breed no significant difference was noticed in LIPE transcription levels between TT and TC animals. The results may suggest that variations in the PLIN5 sequence may be linked to LIPE expression through a still poorly known regulative molecular process.