The ratio of second-to-fourth digit length (2D:4D), which is generally higher in women compared with men, is a putative marker of prenatal testosterone (PT) exposure. Lower 2D:4D is linked with greater physical ability and strength, better sporting performance and a propensity towards jobs demanding greater physical ability. The objectives of this paper were to examine the sexual dimorphism in 2D:4D in both hands 1and compare this dimorphism in the students of military and civil courses at the General Kuściuszko Military Academy of Land Forces in Wrocław. The cross-sectional study compared 59 female and 118 male students from the military courses and 53 females and 64 male students from the civil courses. Besides calculating 2D:4D (2D/4D) for each hand, height and weight were also recorded. Physical fitness and endurance were assessed using Eurofit tests. Handgrip strength was measured using a standardized isometric dynamometer. In almost all physical tests, students in the military cohort showed highly significant greater physical ability and strength (e.g. handgrip strength) when compared with the civil cohort. Male participants had a significantly lower 2D:4D than females for each hand, as well as for the average value for both hands. The sexual dimorphism was, however, a little more pronounced in the right hand than in the left. Both sex and course type were significant predictors of 2D:4D. There were significant interactions between sex and the student type. Among females, but not in males, the military cohort had a significantly lower, i.e. more ‘masculine’, 2D:4D for the left hand and right hand and average for both hands (t=3.290, p<0.001) than the civil cohort. This was not the case in males. However, the sex difference in 2D:4D was only significant among the civil students, and not among the military cadets. In conclusion, higher PT exposure, as represented by a lower 2D:4D, among the Polish females might be an indicator of relatively increased physical ability and motivation to choose professions that require higher strength and endurance.