Hager Pond, a mire in northern Idaho, reveals at least five pollen zones since sediments formed after the last recession of continental ice (>9500 yr BP). Zone I (>9500-8300 yr BP) consists mainly of diploxylon pine, plus low percentages of Abies, Artemisia, and Picea. SEM examination of conifer pollen at selected levels in the zone reveals that Pinus albicaulis, P. monticola, and P. contorta are present in unknown proportions. The zone resembles modern pollen spectra from the Abies lasiocarpa-P. albicaulis association found locally today only at high elevation. Presence of whitebark pine indicates a cooler, moister climate than at present, but one which was rapidly replaced in Zone II (8300-7600 yr BP) by warmer, drier conditions as inferred by prominence of grass with diploxylon pine. Zone III (7600-3000 yr BP) was probably dominated by Pseudotsuga menziesii, plus diploxylon pine and prominent Artemisia and denotes a change in vegetation but continuation of the warmer drier conditions. Beginning at approximately 3000 yr BP Picea engelmannii, Abies lasiocarpa, and/or A. grandis and diploxylon pine were dominants and the inferred climate became cooler and moister concomitant with Neoglaciation. The modern climatic climax (Zone 157), with Tsuga heterophylla as dominant, has emerged in approximately the last 1500 yr.