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In this study, the pull-in phenomenon of a Nano-actuator is investigated employing a nonlocal Bernoulli-Euler beam model with clamped-clamped conditions. The model accounts for viscous damping, residual stresses, the van der Waals (vdW) force and electrostatic forces with nonlocal effects. The hybrid differential transformation/finite difference method (HDTFDM) is used to analyze the nonlocal effects on a graphene sheet nanobeam, which is electrostatically actuated under the influence of the coupling effect, the von Kármán nonlinear strains and the fringing field effect. The pull-in voltage as calculated by the presented model deviates by no more than 0.29% from previous literature, verifying the validity of the HDTFDM. Furthermore, the nonlocal nonlinear behavior of the electrostatically actuated nanobeam is investigated, and the effects of viscous damping, residual stresses, and length-gap ratio are examined in detail. Overall, the results reveal that small scale effects significantly influence the characteristics of the graphene sheet nanobeam actuator.
Background: Hereditary transthyretin-mediated (hATTR) amyloidosis a hereditary, multi-systemic and life-threatening disease resulting in neuropathy and cardiomyopathy. In the APOLLO study, patisiran, an investigational RNAi therapeutic targeting hepatic TTR production resulted in significant improvement in neuropathy and QoL compared to placebo and was generally well tolerated. Methods: APOLLO, a Phase 3 study of patisiran vs. placebo (NCT01960348) prespecified a cardiac subpopulation (n=126 of 225 total) that included patients with baseline left ventricular (LV) wall thickness ≥ 13mm and no medical history of aortic valve disease or hypertension. Cardiac measures included structure and function by electrocardiography, changes in NT-proBNP and 10-MWT gait speed. Results: At 18 months, patisiran treatment resulted in a mean reduction in LV wall thickness of 1 mm (p=0.017) compared to baseline, which was associated with significant improvements relative to placebo in LV end diastolic volume (+8.31 mL, p=0.036), global longitudinal strain (-1.37%, p=0.015) and NT-proBNP (55% reduction, p=7.7 x 10-8) (Figure 1). Gait speed was also improved relative to placebo (+0.35 m/sec, p=7.4 x 10-9). Rate of death or hospitalization was lower with patisiran. mNIS+7 results in the cardiac subpopulation will also be presented. Conclusions: These data suggest patisiran has the potential to halt or reverse cardiac manifestations of hATTR amyloidosis.
Introduction: Long-term outcomes following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remain poor. Two-thirds of OHCA patients surviving to hospital admission die from neurological injuries, and of those discharged, one-third have irreversible cognitive disabilities due to cerebral ischemia. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive imaging technique which is able to continuously detect regional cerebral oxygenation (rSO2). NIRS monitoring has been used to measure rSO2 during in-hospital cardiac arrest resuscitation. Our study is the first feasibility study of paramedics applying NIRS monitoring during OHCA resuscitation. Methods: One NIRS monitor (Equanox 7600; Nonin, Plymouth, MI, USA) was placed on an Emergency Response Unit (ERU) with York Region Paramedic Services. ERU paramedics were trained to apply the device to patients foreheads during OHCA resuscitation and record rSO2 until arrival at hospital or termination of resuscitation. Paramedics did not alter any aspect of patient care by using the NIRS monitor. They were instructed to press an action marker on the device during ACLS interventions (e.g. defibrillation, intubation, medications, etc). rSO2 data was later downloaded for analysis. Our feasibility criteria was to obtain >70% of data files with rSO2 data and >70% of data files with event markers. Results: Data was collected from 24 OHCA patients over a period of 10 months. 19 cases (79%) files contained rSO2 data and 17 cases (71%) had event markers. The rSO2 data present in each file varied widely from complete recording for the entire call duration to sporadic brief readings. Event markers varied from 1 to 10 markers spaced throughout the cases. Conclusion: This is the first study to demonstrate that the use of NIRS by paramedics as part of OHCA resuscitation is feasible. Future studies are required to determine how rSO2 monitoring can be used to guide OHCA resuscitation. The results of this study will help inform protocols for future studies evaluating the use of NIRS in the out-of-hospital setting.
Introduction: Clinical context is critical for accurate radiologic interpretation of neuroimaging investigations. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a change in the Emergency Department (ED) computerized provider order entry (CPOE) interface on the quality of clinical information conveyed in ED neuroimaging requisitions for suspected stroke patients. Methods: Four local EDs utilizing a common CPOE ED Stroke order set were studied before and after the introduction of a mandatory blank free text field requiring clinical information for the radiologist before a computed tomography angiography (CTA) request could be submitted. Prior to this modification, the indication (acute stroke) was pre-filled in the CTA request for convenience with the option of providing additional information at the discretion of the ordering physician. ED physicians were informed of the change as well as the rationale for its implementation. A retrospective pre (90 days) post (30 days) analysis was conducted across four local EDs to evaluate the impact of the CPOE user interface change on the quality of clinical information provided on neuroimaging orders. Patients aged 18 with CTA head and/or neck orders submitted from the order set were included. Patients were excluded if the CTA order was submitted outside of the ED Stroke order set, if order entry was by non-physician personnel, or if the order was modified by the diagnostic imaging department after ED submission. Clinical information from CTA orders were scored as complete, partial, or absent/uninformative based on a standardized rubric of critical elements, including: description of neurological deficit(s), lateralization, and timing of symptom onset or duration. Results were analyzed using chi square analysis. Results: Pre-implementation data from Oct 1, 2015 Jan 1, 2016 (N=652) was compared to post-implementation data from Nov 1 30, 2016 (N=227). The proportion of complete, partial, and absent/uninformative clinical histories were: 45.3%, 31.4%, and 23.3% in the pre-implementation period and 62.6%, 37.4%, and 0% in the post-implementation period respectively. There was a 38.2% relative increase in complete clinical histories, a 19.1% relative increase in partial clinical histories, and a 100% reduction in absent/uninformative clinical histories (p<0.001). Conclusion: The introduction of a mandatory free text field significantly increased the overall quality of clinical information provided on ED neuroimaging orders. This CPOE strategy has the potential to improve diagnostic accuracy and reduce unnecessary delays to imaging interpretation caused by lack of clinical information.
Bathing intensive care unit (ICU) patients with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG)–impregnated cloths decreases the risk of healthcare-associated bacteremia and multidrug-resistant organism transmission. Hospitals employ different methods of CHG bathing, and few studies have evaluated whether those methods yield comparable results.
To determine whether 3 different CHG skin cleansing methods yield similar residual CHG concentrations and bacterial densities on skin.
Prospective, randomized 2-center study with blinded assessment.
PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING
Healthcare personnel in surgical ICUs at 2 tertiary-care teaching hospitals in Chicago, Illinois, and Boston, Massachusetts, from July 2015 to January 2016.
Cleansing skin of one forearm with no-rinse 2% CHG-impregnated polyester cloth (method A) versus 4% CHG liquid cleansing with rinsing on the contralateral arm, applied with either non–antiseptic-impregnated cellulose/polyester cloth (method B) or cotton washcloth dampened with sterile water (method C).
In total, 63 participants (126 forearms) received method A on 1 forearm (n=63). On the contralateral forearm, 33 participants received method B and 30 participants received method C. Immediately and 6 hours after cleansing, method A yielded the highest residual CHG concentrations (2500 µg/mL and 1250 µg/mL, respectively) and lowest bacterial densities compared to methods B or C (P<.001).
In healthy volunteers, cleansing with 2% CHG-impregnated cloths yielded higher residual CHG concentrations and lower bacterial densities than cleansing with 4% CHG liquid applied with either of 2 different cloth types and followed by rinsing. The relevance of these differences to clinical outcomes remains to be determined.
The process of the magnetic polarity reversal of the Sun has been an important subject in the solar physics. The objective of this study is to investigate how solar global magnetic field change over solar cycle by tracking the migration of open magnetic flux regions. The results show that the open magnetic fluxes migrate from one pole to the other crossing the equator during a solar cycle. The migration rate is approximately 10 m s−1, comparable to meridional flow. The results have been published in Scientific Reports (Huang et al. (2017)).
The Chinese Solar and Geophysical Data (CSGD) was first issued at the Beijing Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences (now the headquarter of the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences) in 1971, when China’s satellite-industry was booming. CSGD covers the observational data (observations of the sunspots, solar flares, solar radio bursts, ionospheric storm and geomagnetic storm) from a couple of domestic observatories and the forecast data. The compiler of CSGD still keeps the data exchange with other institutes worldwide. The type of the dataset includes texts, tables, figures and so on. Up to now, we have electronized all the historic archives, making them easily accessible to people who are interested in them.
The regular solar observations are operated at Huairou Solar Observing Station (HSOS) since 1987, which make the construction of long-term magnetic field datasets available to understand solar magnetic field and cycles. There exist some inconveniences for solar physicist to use these data, because the data storage medium and format at HSOS experienced some changes. Additionally, the processes of magnetic field calibration are not easy to deal with for who are not familiar with these data. Here shows that the magnetic field of HSOS are further processed toward international standards, in order to explore HSOS observations data for scientific research.
A range of endophenotypes characterise psychosis, however there has been limited work understanding if and how they are inter-related.
This multi-centre study includes 8754 participants: 2212 people with a psychotic disorder, 1487 unaffected relatives of probands, and 5055 healthy controls. We investigated cognition [digit span (N = 3127), block design (N = 5491), and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (N = 3543)], electrophysiology [P300 amplitude and latency (N = 1102)], and neuroanatomy [lateral ventricular volume (N = 1721)]. We used linear regression to assess the interrelationships between endophenotypes.
The P300 amplitude and latency were not associated (regression coef. −0.06, 95% CI −0.12 to 0.01, p = 0.060), and P300 amplitude was positively associated with block design (coef. 0.19, 95% CI 0.10–0.28, p < 0.001). There was no evidence of associations between lateral ventricular volume and the other measures (all p > 0.38). All the cognitive endophenotypes were associated with each other in the expected directions (all p < 0.001). Lastly, the relationships between pairs of endophenotypes were consistent in all three participant groups, differing for some of the cognitive pairings only in the strengths of the relationships.
The P300 amplitude and latency are independent endophenotypes; the former indexing spatial visualisation and working memory, and the latter is hypothesised to index basic processing speed. Individuals with psychotic illnesses, their unaffected relatives, and healthy controls all show similar patterns of associations between endophenotypes, endorsing the theory of a continuum of psychosis liability across the population.
Self-report measurement instruments are commonly used to screen for mental health disorders in Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC). The Western origins of most depression instruments may constitute a bias when used globally. Western measures based on the DSM, do not fully capture the expression of depression globally. We developed a self-report scale design to address this limitation, the International Depression Symptom Scale-General version (IDSS-G), based on empirical evidence of the signs and symptoms of depression reported across cultures. This paper describes the rationale and process of its development and the results of an initial test among a non-Western population.
We evaluated internal consistency reliability, test–retest reliability and inter-rater reliability of the IDSS-G in a sample N = 147 male and female attendees of primary health clinics in Yangon, Myanmar. For criterion validity, IDSS-G scores were compared with diagnosis by local psychiatrists using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID). Construct validity was evaluated by investigating associations between the IDSS-G and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), impaired function, and suicidal ideation.
The IDSS-G showed high internal consistency reliability (α = 0.92), test–retest reliability (r = 0.87), and inter-rater reliability (ICC = 0.90). Strong correlations between the IDSS-G and PHQ-9, functioning, and suicidal ideation supported construct validity. Criterion validity was supported for use of the IDSS-G to identify people with a SCID diagnosed depressive disorder (major depression/dysthymia). The IDSS-G also demonstrated incremental validity by predicting functional impairment beyond that predicted by the PHQ-9. Results suggest that the IDSS-G accurately assesses depression in this population. Future testing in other populations will follow.
Movies of the solar granulation were made simultaneously at 5575 Å and 1.64 μm using the Vacuum Tower Telescope at NSO/SP. A 128 × 128 HgCdTe array was used in the infrared and an RCA 504 CCD in the visible. From the movies, we determine and compare statistical properties of the granulation and seeing conditions.
Mycobacterium marinum, a bacterium found in freshwater and saltwater, can infect persons with direct exposure to fish or aquariums. During December 2013, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene learned of four suspected or confirmed M. marinum skin or soft tissue infections (SSTIs) among persons who purchased whole fish from Chinese markets. Ninety-eight case-patients with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) SSTIs were identified with onset June 2013–March 2014. Of these, 77 (79%) were female. The median age was 62 years (range 30–91). Whole genome sequencing of clinical isolates revealed two main clusters and marked genetic diversity. Environmental samples from distributors yielded NTM though not M. marinum. We compared 56 case-patients with 185 control subjects who shopped in Chinese markets, frequency-matched by age group and sex. Risk factors for infection included skin injury to the finger or hand (odds ratio [OR]: 15·5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6·9–37·3), hand injury while preparing fish or seafood (OR 8·3; 95% CI 3·8–19·1), and purchasing tilapia (OR 3·6; 95% CI 1·1–13·9) or whiting (OR 2·7; 95% CI 1·1–6·6). A definitive environmental outbreak source was not identified.
Hearing loss can impair effective communication between caregivers and individuals with cognitive impairment. However, hearing loss is not often measured or addressed in care plans for these individuals. The aim of this study is to measure the prevalence of hearing loss and the utilization of hearing aids in a sample of individuals with cognitive impairment in a tertiary care memory clinic.
A retrospective review of 133 charts of individuals >50 years who underwent hearing assessment at a tertiary care memory clinic over a 12-month period (June 2014–June 2015) was undertaken. Using descriptive statistics, the prevalence of hearing loss was determined and associations with demographic variables, relevant medical history, cognitive status, and hearing aid utilization were investigated.
Results indicate that hearing loss is highly prevalent among this sample of cognitively impaired older adults. Sixty percent of the sample had at least a mild hearing loss in the better hearing ear. Among variables examined, age, MMSE, and medical history of diabetes were strongly associated with hearing impairment. Hearing aid utilization increased in concordance with severity of hearing loss, from 9% to 54% of individuals with a mild or moderate/severe hearing loss, respectively.
Hearing loss is highly prevalent among older adults with cognitive impairment. Despite high prevalence of hearing loss, hearing aid utilization remains low. Our study highlights the importance of hearing evaluation and rehabilitation as part of the cognitive assessment and care management plan in this vulnerable population.
Introduction: The use of free open access medicine, particularly open educational resources (OERs), by medical educators and learners continues to increase. As OERs, especially blogs and podcasts, rise in popularity, their ease of dissemination raises concerns about their quality. While critical appraisal of primary research and journal articles is formally taught, no training exists for the assessment of OERs. Thus, the ability of educators and learners to effectively assess the quality of OERs using gestalt alone has been questioned. Our goal is to determine whether gestalt is sufficient for emergency medicine learners (EM) and physicians to consistently rate and reliably recommend OERs to their colleagues. We hypothesized that EM physicians and learners would differ substantively in their assessment of the same resources. Methods: Participants included 31 EM learners and 23 EM attending physicians from Canada and the U.S. A modified Dillman technique was used to administer 4 survey blocks of 10 blog posts per subject between April and August, 2015. Participants were asked whether they would recommend each OER to 1) a learner or 2) an attending physician. The ratings reliability was assessed using single measures intraclass correlations and their correlations amongst the groups were assessed using Spearman’s rho. Family-wise adjustments were made for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni technique. Results: Learners demonstrated poor reliability when recommending resources for other learners (ICC= 0.21, 95% CI 0.13-0.39) and attending physicians (ICC = 0.16, 95% CI=0.09-0.30). Similarly, attendings had poor reliability when recommending resources for learners (ICC= 0.27, 95% CI 0.18-0.41) and other attendings (ICC=0.22, 95% CI 0.14-0.35). Learners and attendings demonstrated moderate consistency between them when recommending resources for learners (rs=0.494, p<.01) and attendings (rs=0.491, p<.01). Conclusion: Using a gestalt-based rating system is neither reliable nor consistent when recommending OERs to learners and attending physicians. Learners’ gestalt ratings for recommending resources for other learners and attendings were especially unreliable. Our findings suggests the need for structured rating systems to rate OERs.
The present report is drastically shorter and, therefore, different in form from previous reports. While galactic research has increased considerably in recent years, the financial situation in the IAU made it necessary to reduce the size of the reports to half their previous size. This obliged us to adopt an almost telegraphic style in our report. However, an extended version of the report, including also the necessary references, will be published by the University of Thessaloniki and distributed to members of Commission 33. Any other interested astronomer may write to ask for a copy.
The report has been prepared by G. Contopoulos (Sections I, V, VI) and S. McCuskey (Sections II, III, IV). In our work we have been helped by Drs Kerr (radio astronomy) and Haradze (Russian contributions). Dr Elvius has written the Report of the Committee “Selected Areas”. We could cover the literature up to the fall of 1969, plus work in progress, reported by members of our commission.
Development of transparent electrodynamic screens (EDS) printed on ultrathin
flexible glass film substrates for retrofitting on solar panels and solar
mirrors to perform self cleaning function is reviewed. Large-scale solar plants
are generally installed in semi-arid and desert areas where dust layers build up
on solar collectors causes major energy-yield loss. Maintaining designed plant
capacities requires more than 90% reflectivity for CSP mirrors and 90%
transmission efficiency for PV modules; solar collectors must therefore be
cleaned at a frequency depending on the rate of dust deposition. Scarcity of
water in these regions requires a cleaning method that drastically reduces or
eliminates water and the associated labor costs for high efficiency operation of
large-scale solar plants. An EDS film consists of rows of interdigitated,
transparent conducting parallel electrodes embedded within a flexible ultrathin
glass film and an optically clear adhesive film used for retrofitting the film
on the surface of solar collectors. When phased voltage pulses activate the
electrodes, the dust particles are first electrostatically charged, then
repelled and removed from the surface of the solar collectors by Coulomb force,
restoring transmission efficiency greater than 90%. The electrodes of EDS are
either made from silver nanowire or another conductive transparent material
printed on a highly transparent, ultrathin (100-μm thick), flexible
borosilicate glass film. Applications of different conducting transparent
electrodes and methods of printing are reviewed for optimizing self-cleaning
function of solar panels and mirrors.
Taiwan is a young and seismically active mountain belt, where a series of strong earthquakes (M>7) have occurred over the past hundred years. Identifying historical earthquakes around Taiwan is a key to better constrain the geodynamic of this active region. Sedimentological and geochemical analyses of surface sediments from one station offshore east Taiwan revealed the presence of coarse-grained layers interpreted as turbidites. The age of these layers have been determined by 210Pb, 137Cs, and 241Am chronology. Dating of the three most recent turbidites provides ages of AD 2001±3, AD 1950±5, and AD 1928±10. The results show striking temporal correspondence of turbidite layers to large (M≥6.8) earthquakes recorded in the region since the 20th century. The chronologies of sediment layers lead us to believe that turbidites resulted from the 2003 Taitung earthquake (M 6.8), the 1951 Chengkong earthquake (M 7.1), and the 1935 Lutao earthquake (M 7.0), respectively. Such a good correlation between turbidites and high-magnitude (M≥6.8) historical and instrumental seismic events suggests that turbidite paleoseismology constitutes a valuable tool for earthquake assessment in the eastern Taiwan margin. Moreover, the modern reservoir radiocarbon age and the regional marine reservoir correction (ΔR) of the Kuroshio Current off Taiwan were estimated by comparing accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C ages with ages derived from corrected 210Pb profiles and historical accounts of identifiable seismic events. Such a determination is important to calibrate the 14C ages of marine materials for accurate comparison of marine and continental geological records. Our calculated mean ΔR value of 232±54 14C yr (n=2) is higher than its modern value of 86±40 14C yr. This high value can be explained by the presence of local upwelling cells and turbulence in the Kuroshio Current, north of Green Island. These upwelling cells bring 14C-depleted water to the surface, resulting in an increase of the modern ΔR value in this portion of the Kuroshio Current.
In order to analyze the boiling and capillary limitations of two-phase heat transport devices, the existing models developed by Chi and Peterson and the existing experimental data carried out with various micro channel wick structures from literature were collected for benchmark. It was found that the dominant parameters for boiling and capillary limitations were the nucleation sites and structure geometries of the micro channels, and important parameters were considered to modify the models empirically. It was also found that for micro channel structures the inclined angle is sensitive to the capillary limitations and not to boiling limitations. By properly estimating the nucleation sites and empirical coefficients for micro channels needed by the newly modified models, the boiling and capillary limitations can be accurately predicted, and hence the applicability of the modified models is confirmed. Based on this, a numerical analysis was then carried out to investigate the trends of boiling and capillary limitations of the micro channel wick structures. Effects of the channel geometries and arrangement were taken into account, including the aspect ratio and structure size of the micro channels. Furthermore, the effects of inclined angle and contact angle were also analyzed. The present results can provide a design reference of performance trends of micro channel wick structures.
This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate factors that influence the likelihood of syphilis infection from risk-taking behaviours and medical conditions. A retrospective case-control study was conducted by enrolling 664 syphilis inpatients (excluding 11 congenital syphilis patients) and 800 sex- and age-matched controls. Medical histories, clinical data and patient interview data were collected and subjected to logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of syphilis in the study population was 3·9% (675/17 304). By univariate analysis, syphilis infection was associated with migration between cities, marital status, smoking, reproductive history, hypertension, elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) (P < 0·05). A high rate of syphilis-HBV co-infection was observed in HIV-negative patients and further research revealed an association between syphilis and specific HBV serological reactivity. Syphilis was also associated with the frequency, duration and status of tobacco use. Multivariate analysis indicated that syphilis infection was independently associated with migration between cities [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1·368, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·048–1·785], current smoking (aOR 1·607, 95% CI 1·177–2·195), elevated BUN (aOR 1·782, 95% CI 1·188–2·673) and some serological patterns of HBV infection. To prevent the spread of infectious diseases, inpatients and blood donors should be tested for HIV, syphilis, HBV and HCV simultaneously.