n-3 Long-chain PUFA (n-3 LC-PUFA), particularly EPA and DHA, play a key role in the maintenance of brain functions such as learning and memory that are impaired during ageing. Ageing is also associated with changes in the DHA content of brain membranes that could contribute to memory impairment. Limited studies have investigated the effects of ageing and n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation on both blood and brain fatty acid compositions. Therefore, we assessed the relationship between fatty acid contents in plasma and erythrocyte membranes and those in the hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex during ageing, and after a 5-month period of EPA/DHA supplementation in rats. In the blood, ageing was associated with an increase in plasma DHA content, whereas the DHA content remained stable in erythrocyte membranes. In the brain, ageing was associated with a decrease in DHA content, which was both region-specific and phospholipid class-specific. In EPA/DHA-supplemented aged rats, DHA contents were increased both in the blood and brain compared with the control rats. The present results demonstrated that n-3 LC-PUFA level in the plasma was not an accurate biomarker of brain DHA status during ageing. Moreover, we highlighted a positive relationship between the DHA levels in erythrocyte phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and those in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in EPA/DHA-supplemented aged rats. Within the framework of preventive dietary supplementation to delay brain ageing, these results suggest the possibility of using erythrocyte PE DHA content as a reliable biomarker of DHA status in specific brain regions.