To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To identify factors associated with breast-feeding initiation and continuation in Canadian-born and non-Canadian-born women.
Prospective cohort of mothers and infants born from 2008 to 2012: the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Cohort Study.
General community setting in four Canadian provinces.
In total, 3455 pregnant women from Vancouver, Edmonton, Winnipeg and Toronto between 2008 and 2012.
Of 3010 participants included in the current study, the majority were Canadian-born (75·5 %). Breast-feeding initiation rates were high in both non-Canadian-born (95·5 %) and Canadian-born participants (92·7 %). The median breast-feeding duration was 10 months in Canadian-born participants and 11 months in non-Canadian-born participants. Among Canadian-born participants, factors associated with breast-feeding initiation and continuation were older maternal age, higher maternal education, living with their partner and recruitment site. Rooming-in during the hospital stay was also associated with higher rates of breast-feeding initiation, but not continuation at 6-month postpartum. Factors associated with non-initiation of breast-feeding and cessation at 6-month postpartum were maternal smoking, living with a current smoker, caesarean birth and early-term birth. Among non-Canadian-born participants, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with lower odds of breast-feeding initiation and lower odds of breast-feeding continuation at 6 months, and older maternal age and recruitment site were associated with breast-feeding continuation at 6 months.
Although Canadian-born and non-Canadian-born women in the CHILD cohort have similar breast-feeding initiation rates, breast-feeding initiation and continuation are more strongly associated with socio-demographic characteristics in Canadian-born participants. Recruitment site was strongly associated with breast-feeding continuation in both groups and may indicate geographic disparities in breast-feeding rates nationally.
The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
New guidelines for peanut allergy prevention in high-risk infants recommend introducing peanut during infancy but do not address breastfeeding or maternal peanut consumption. We assessed the independent and combined association of these factors with peanut sensitization in the general population CHILD birth cohort (N = 2759 mother–child dyads). Mothers reported peanut consumption during pregnancy, timing of first infant peanut consumption, and length of breastfeeding duration. Child peanut sensitization was determined by skin prick testing at 1, 3, and 5 years. Overall, 69% of mothers regularly consumed peanuts and 36% of infants were fed peanut in the first year (20% while breastfeeding and 16% after breastfeeding cessation). Infants who were introduced to peanut early (before 1 year) after breastfeeding cessation had a 66% reduced risk of sensitization at 5 years compared to those who were not (1.9% vs. 5.8% sensitization; aOR 0.34, 95% CI 0.14–0.68). This risk was further reduced if mothers introduced peanut early while breastfeeding and regularly consumed peanut themselves (0.3% sensitization; aOR 0.07, 0.01–0.25). In longitudinal analyses, these associations were driven by a higher odds of outgrowing early sensitization and a lower odds of late-onset sensitization. There was no apparent benefit (or harm) from maternal peanut consumption without breastfeeding. Taken together, these results suggest the combination of maternal peanut consumption and breastfeeding at the time of peanut introduction during infancy may help to decrease the risk of peanut sensitization. Mechanistic and clinical intervention studies are needed to confirm and understand this “triple exposure” hypothesis.
The mineral ‘oboyerite’, first described in 1979 from the Grand Central mine, Tombstone, Cochise County, Arizona, USA, has been re-examined. The type specimen from the Natural History Museum, London and a specimen from the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County (traceable to S. A Williams, who first described ‘oboyerite’) were analysed in this study. The discreditation of ‘oboyerite’ as a valid mineral species has been approved by the Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification of the International Mineralogical Association (Proposal 19-D). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy were all employed to show that ‘oboyerite’ is formed of at least two distinct phases, including the lead–tellurium oxysalt minerals ottoite and plumbotellurite. During the course of the discreditation, plumbotellurite was confirmed to be identical to the synthetic compound α-Pb2+Te4+O3. Previously, in some mineralogical literature plumbotellurite was described as orthorhombic with no known crystal structure.
Non-communicable disease diagnosis frequently relies on biochemical measurements but laboratory infrastructure in low-income settings is often insufficient and distances to clinics may be vast. We present a model for point of care (POC) epidemiology as used in our study of chronic disease in the Haiti Health Study, in rural and urban Haiti. Point of care testing (POCT) of creatinine, cholesterol, and hemoglobin A1c as well as physical measurements of weight, height, and waist circumference allowed for diagnosis of diabetes, chronic kidney disease, dyslipidemias, and obesity. Methods and troubleshooting techniques for the data collection of this study are presented. We discuss our method of community-health worker (CHW) training, community engagement, study design, and field data collection. We also discuss the machines used and our quality control across CHWs and across geographical regions. Pitfalls tended to include equipment malfunction, transportation issues, and cultural differences. May this paper provide information for those attempting to perform similar diagnostic and screening studies using POCT in resource poor settings.
We evaluated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management (TCM) programme as a universal intervention, given schools’ important influence on child mental health.
A two-arm, pragmatic, parallel group, superiority, cluster randomised controlled trial recruited three cohorts of schools (clusters) between 2012 and 2014, randomising them to TCM (intervention) or Teaching As Usual (TAU-control). TCM was delivered to teachers in six whole-day sessions, spread over 6 months. Schools and teachers were not masked to allocation. The primary outcome was teacher-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) Total Difficulties score. Random effects linear regression and marginal logistic regression models using Generalised Estimating Equations were used to analyse the outcomes. Trial registration: ISRCTN84130388.
Eighty schools (2075 children) were enrolled; 40 (1037 children) to TCM and 40 (1038 children) to TAU. Outcome data were collected at 9, 18, and 30-months for 96, 89, and 85% of children, respectively. The intervention reduced the SDQ-Total Difficulties score at 9 months (mean (s.d.):5.5 (5.4) in TCM v. 6.2 (6.2) in TAU; adjusted mean difference = −1.0; 95% CI−1.9 to −0.1; p = 0.03) but this did not persist at 18 or 30 months. Cost-effectiveness analysis suggested that TCM may be cost-effective compared with TAU at 30-months, but this result was associated with uncertainty so no firm conclusions can be drawn. A priori subgroup analyses suggested TCM is more effective for children with poor mental health.
TCM provided a small, short-term improvement to children's mental health particularly for children who are already struggling.
Two round barrows were excavated in 1982–3 at Church Lawton near to the eastern edge of the Cheshire and Staffordshire Plain. One of the barrows was defined by a ring of nine glacial boulders and it is possible that these monoliths initially formed a free-standing stone circle. The remains constitute a rare example of the use of stone to enhance a Bronze Age barrow in the lowlands of central western England. Beneath the mound demarcated by the boulders were the burnt remains of a small, roughly rectangular turf stack associated with fragments of clay daub and pieces of timber. No direct evidence of burial was found within the monument. A radiocarbon date suggests that the structural sequence began sometime in the late 3rd–early 2nd millennium cal bc. The other barrow was principally a two-phased construction and contained urned and un-urned cremation burials. A battle-axe was placed next to one of the burials. Radiocarbon dates obtained from the cremations and associated deposits indicate that individuals were being interred from the late 3rd or early 2nd millennium cal bc, with the practice continuing until the middle of the 2nd millennium. The barrows formed part of a cemetery, consisting of three known mounds.
Two surveys were carried out in the Ross Sea region during February and March 2004 and 2008 from the New Zealand RV Tangaroa. Fishes were sampled on the continental shelf and slope of the Ross Sea, and on adjacent seamounts to the north, mainly using a large demersal fish trawl and a large mesopelagic fish trawl. Parts of the shelf and slope were stratified by depth and at least three random demersal trawls were completed in each stratum, enabling biomass estimates of demersal fish to be calculated. Fish distribution data from these two surveys were supplemented by collections made by observers from the toothfish fishery. A diverse collection of over 2500 fish specimens was obtained from the two surveys representing 110 species in 21 families. When combined with previous documented material this gave a total species list of 175, of which 135 were from the Ross Sea shelf and slope (to the 2000 m isobath). Demersal species-richness, diversity and evenness indices all decreased going from the shelf to the slope and the seamounts. In contrast, indices for pelagic species were similar for the slope and seamounts/abyss but were much lower for the shelf.
Demersal fishes were sampled using a large fish trawl during two surveys carried out in February and March 2004 and 2008 in the Ross Sea, and around seamounts and islands just to the north at 66°S. The distribution and abundance of 65 species collected in these surveys were examined to determine if demersal fish communities varied throughout the area, and what environmental factors might influence this. Species accumulation with sample frequency did not reach an asymptote, but the rate of new species was low suggesting data were adequate for describing the main components of the communities. Three broad assemblages were identified, in the southern Ross Sea (south of 74°S), central–northern Ross Sea (between latitudes 71°–74°S), and the seamounts further north (65°–68°S) where some species more typical of sub-Antarctic latitudes were observed. Multivariate analyses indicated that environmental factors of seafloor rugosity (roughness), temperature, depth, and current speed were the main variables determining patterns in demersal fish communities.
The effect of separating conditions on lipase activity and free fatty acid levels in preheated milk, cream and skim milk was measured on nine occasions during a 12-week period covering the seasonal change from winter feeding to summertime grazing. This change consisted of four periods each representing a different type of forage intake, namely: silage, kale, daytime grazing and 24 h grazing. Milk was separated at 30, 40, 50 and 60°C with preheating times of 10, 25 and 55 s. Results were expressed both as absolute values and in terms of changes relative to the original unheated milk. Lipase activity and free fatty acid concentration were significantly reduced as separation temperature increased but were not influenced by holding time. The loss of activity in cream was progressive so that at 60°C only 40% of the original activity remained. Up to 50°C little change occurred in preheated milk or skim milk activity, while at 60°C 83 and 76% respectively of the original activity remained. The amount of activity calculated to be associated with the fat fraction of the cream also decreased with temperature. Activity varied significantly with date; maximum values were observed during the first 3 weeks of summertime grazing. Relative activity values indicated that the susceptibility of milk lipase to heat inactivation also varied with date. Lipolysis was also significantly affected by date. Cream free fatty acid levels were lower during the period of daytime grazing and were significantly higher than those in preheated milk. The correlation between lipase activity and free fatty acid levels was generally poor, accounting for between 0 and 34% of the variance. Possible reasons for the effect of separating temperature on lipolysis in cream are discussed.
[Methylene-14C]-L-tryptophan was administered intravenously to five patients suffering from severe depression before and after clinical recovery, and to six control subjects; all subjects were tested while on a standard diet. [14C]-5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid and [14C]-indoleacetic acid were isolated from urine during the following 48 hours and purified to constant specific radioactivity (SA). From the SA and the determination of the total excretion of the two acids their percentage conversion from labelled tryptophan was estimated. There was no consistent difference found, in patients before and after recovery, or between patients and controls, in the conversion of tryptophan to these indole acids. In another series of 11 depressive patients and 11 controls, plasma total (acid-soluble) tryptophan was measured at frequent intervals up to three hours after intravenous administration of a loading dose (1 g) of L-tryptophan. The height of the curves of plasma tryptophan throughout the three hour period was greater than in the depressive patients, even after they had recovered, than in the controls. It is concluded that the apparent volume of distribution of tryptophan is reduced in depressive individuals. This is consistent with other findings of increased protein-binding of plasma tryptophan and reduced CSF tryptophan levels in depressive patients.