Fourteen 9-month-old zebu calves were immunized with 10000 irradiated Schistosoma bovis schistosomula given in 1–3 intramuscular or subcutaneous doses, and 4 more calves were immunized with 10000 irradiated cercariae administered percutaneously in a single dose. Eight weeks after the beginning of the experiment these calves, together with four non-immunized controls were challenged percutaneously with 10000 normal S. bovis cercariae/calf. Comparative clinical, parasitological, pathological and pathophysiological observations subsequently revealed significant differences between the vaccinated and non-vaccinated calves. The vaccinated calves showed significantly higher growth rates, and a superior body composition as indicated by their lower total body water content. The beneficial effects of vaccination were also shown by significantly lower faecal egg outputs in the vaccinated calves and by their lower tissue egg and adult worm counts. The reduced tissue egg counts were also reflected in the milder histopathological changes seen in the vaccinated calves. The vaccinated calves had significantly higher packed cell and circulating red blood cell volumes than the challenged controls, longer red blood cell half lives, and somewhat lower blood volumes and rates of red blood cell synthesis. No untoward clinical effects that could be attributed to vaccination were recorded. These results indicate that zebu cattle can be effectively protected against S. bovis by vaccination with irradiated organisms. We are now evaluating this type of vaccine in a field trial in an enzootic area in the Sudan.