To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered to be the most effective treatment in severe major depression. The identification of reliable predictors of ECT response could contribute to a more targeted patient selection and consequently increased ECT response rates.
To investigate the predictive value of age, depression severity, psychotic and melancholic features for ECT response and remission in major depression.
A meta-analysis was conducted according to the PRISMA statement. A literature search identified recent studies that reported on at least one of the potential predictors.
Of the 2193 articles screened, 34 have been included for meta-analysis. Presence of psychotic features is a predictor of ECT remission (odds ratio (OR) = 1.47, P = 0.001) and response (OR = 1.69, P < 0.001), as is older age (standardised mean difference (SMD) = 0.26 for remission and 0.35 for response (P < 0.001)). The severity of depression predicts response (SMD = 0.19, P = 0.001), but not remission. Data on melancholic symptoms were inconclusive.
ECT is particularly effective in patients with depression with psychotic features and in elderly people with depression. More research on both biological and clinical predictors is needed to further evaluate the position of ECT in treatment protocols for major depression.