The relationship of Aspicilia uxoris within Megasporaceae is assessed within a phylogenetic context. ‘Aspicilia’ uxoris and other related species are recovered as sister to the genus Lobothallia s. str. and described here as a new genus. Teuvoa (Ascomycota, Megasporaceae) is erected based on nuclear ITS and LSU sequence data and morphological characters. In addition to Teuvoa uxoris, a second species, T. junipericola, is added to the new genus based on material collected from North America. Teuvoa junipericola, T. uxoris and T. tibetica form a group with 8-spored asci, absence of extrolites, rather short-sized conidia and ascospores, lack of a subhypothecial algal layer, and different substratum preferences (on organic substratum) with a sister relationship to genus Lobothallia s. lat. (Aspicilia subgenus Pachyothallia Clauzade & C. Roux). Based on spore measurements of the holotypes, Lecanora ferganensis Tomin from central Asia (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan), Lecanora atrodiscata Gintovt, from Tajikistan and Lecanora takyroides Dzhur. from Turkmenistan are new synonyms to T. uxoris. A lectotype for Lecanora ferganensis is designated, expanding the known distribution of T. uxoris from Algeria, Morocco and Spain, into Central Asia.