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Formation of a nanometer-scale oxide surface layer is common when a material is exposed to oxygen-containing environment. Employing aberration-corrected analytical transmission electron microscopy and using single crystal SnSe as an example, we show that for an alloy, a second thin amorphous layer can appear underneath the outmost oxide layer. This inner amorphous layer is not oxide based, but instead originates from solid-state amorphization of the base alloy when its free energy rises to above that of the metastable amorphous state; which is a result of the composition shift due to the preferential depletion of the oxidizing species, in our case, the outgoing Sn reacting with the oxygen atmosphere.
Stretchable devices, with the capability of retaining their functionalities under stretching, are drawing much attention as a promising solution to address the mechanical mismatch between traditional stiff electronics and soft curvilinear biological systems. Intensive efforts have been made toward the advancement of stretchable devices, such as the development of novel mechanically durable materials, deformable conductors and circuits, novel processing methods, and elastic matrixes for stretchable substrates and system integration. Among these, the elastic substrate constitutes the component that bears the applied strain and thus endows the device with stretchability, rendering its properties crucial to the overall performance of stretchable devices. This article provides a summary of the elastic materials commonly employed as stretchable substrates, as well as reveals fundamental insights into the properties requirements in the selection of stretchable substrates. Important challenges and strategies in the development of elastic matrices for stretchable devices are also discussed.
Nanomaterials have been intensively studied over the past decades with many advantages over traditional bulk materials in many applications. Nanomaterials' properties are largely governed by their chemical compositions, sizes, shapes, dimensions, morphologies and structures, which are primarily controlled with the chemical and/or physical fabrication methods and processes. This prospective will highlight recent progress on the modifications of oxide nanomaterials' properties by hydrogenation, namely heat treatment under hydrogen or hydrogen plasma environment, for various applications.
SG-III laser facility is now the largest laser driver for inertial confinement fusion research in China. The whole laser facility can deliver 180 kJ energy and 60 TW power ultraviolet laser onto target, with power balance better than 10%. We review the laser system and introduce the SG-III laser performance here.
We consider a distributed storage system employing some existing regenerate codes where the storage nodes are scattered in an optical wireless network. The data collector (DC) connects to the storage nodes via orthogonal channels and downloads data symbols from these nodes. In the existing data reconstruction schemes for distributed storage systems, the data collector downloads all symbols from a subset of the storage nodes. Such a full downloading approach becomes inefficient in wireless networks since due to fading, the wireless channels may not offer sufficient bandwidths for full downloading. Moreover, full downloading is also less power efficient than partial downloading. Given a coding scheme employed by the wireless distributed storage system, we propose a partial downloading scheme that allows downloading a portion of the symbols from any storage node. We formulate a cross-layer wireless resource allocation problem for data reconstruction in distributed storage systems employing such partial downloading. To derive the fundamental properties of partial downloading as well as to reduce the complexity of wireless resource allocation, we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for data reconstructability for partial downloading, in terms of the numbers of downloaded symbols from the storage nodes.We also propose channel and power allocation schemes for partial downloading in wireless distributed storage systems.
The purpose of distributed storage is to store a data file in a distributed manner where the individual storage nodes may be unreliable. This has attracted significant research interests in both communication and computer science fields. The original data file is firstly encoded into multiple coded symbols,which are stored into various storage nodes. Note that, encoded by advanced coding schemes, the original data can be reconstructed if the number of collected data symbols is no less than the number of original data symbols.
Recently, two data encoding schemes for distributed data storage have been proposed, based on rateless coding and network coding [1, 2]. A criterion for distributed data storage is the transmission bandwidth for the reconstruction of the original data file and the repair of a failed storage node. For data reconstruction, a data collector (DC) downloads the symbols in some storage nodes to reconstruct the data. For node regeneration, assuming that a storage node has failed, a new storage node downloads the symbols from some other storage nodes to regenerate the symbols in the failed node.
Household consumption is a major contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions. Some behaviours (for example energy use and vehicle use) may have far larger impacts than others (for example green consumerism of household products). Here, the driving forces of green consumerism and two domestic energy uses (electricity consumption and vehicle fuel use) are compared. This study found that environmental attitudes predicted green consumerism, but not electricity consumption or vehicle fuel use. Furthermore, green consumerism was correlated with income and individual level demographic factors, while energy consumption was primarily predicted by household size and structural constraints. Because household energy consumption has greater environmental impacts than green consumerism, policies that aim to improve pro-environmental attitudes may not be effective in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Policies should rather aim to change structural constraints influencing transportation and household energy decisions and improve the conspicuousness of household energy consumption.
To evaluate the effects of defoliation on green forage performance and grain yield (GY) variation in barley, five barley genotypes were imposed on three levels of defoliation treatments over two consecutive growing seasons in this study. The results indicated that green forage yields were significantly improved by repeated defoliation. The traits of green forage quality, including the ratio of dry weight to fresh weight, crude ash and calcium content were improved, while crude protein and crude fat were reduced, and crude fiber and phosphorus contents appeared not to be influenced by repeated defoliation. Plant height (PH), GY and other yield components, grain number per spike and thousand kernel weight, were significantly reduced by defoliation over the two growing seasons, while internode length below spike was less affected. Reduction in spike length and the number of spikes per plant were identified in only one year. Correlation analysis revealed that only PH exhibited a positive correlation with GY. Effects of genotype, interaction between genotype and defoliation, and environments on changes of forage yield and quality and GY were also discussed. Our current work provides a feasible approach to select elite barley cultivars with optimal defoliation treatments for both forage and grain uses in barley breeding programme.
The distribution of the Critically Endangered tree Manglietia longipedunculata, of which there are only 11 known wild individuals, is restricted to the Nankunshan Nature Reserve in South China. The species is threatened with extinction because of its small number of individuals and the impediments to its reproduction (a combination of protogyny, a short period of stigma receptivity, and a lack of efficient pollinators). To reduce the risk of extinction we conducted two conservation translocation trials: one to augment the sole extant population, and the other 202 km north of the current range. The latter trial was a conservation introduction in which the goals were to increase the population and to buffer against the effects of climate change. We used emerged and grafted seedlings as translocation materials. We compared the survival, growth, and eco-physiological properties of emerged and grafted seedlings at the two sites. The survival rate and growth were higher for grafted seedlings than for emerged seedlings at both sites. Eco-physiological data indicated that grafted seedlings at both sites were as efficient or more so in light and water usage than wild individuals, whereas emerged seedlings were less efficient. Grafted seedlings attained the flowering stage sooner than emerged seedlings. Our study suggests that grafting can facilitate the augmentation and establishment of new populations of M. longipedunculata and perhaps of new populations of other threatened species facing reproductive difficulties and climate change.
Wide band circular polarized (CP) antennas behind extended hemispherical lenses suitable for polarization sensitive THz detector and wireless communication have been designed and characterized using numerical simulation. Two novel, compact and CP dipole antennas are designed and studied for this purpose. CP property of planar antennas is achieved by geometrical modifications of antennas without any complicated feeding structure. Due to compact dimensions, wideband performance and CP behavior, these designs have applications in circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and terahertz detectors. This numerical study deals with polarization diversity with substrate lens, effect of off axis displacement on CP behavior of lens antenna which determines number of pixels for any application, far field patterns variation due to lens's internal reflection, directivity variation attributed to internal reflection and losses. Radiation efficiency variation of antenna by antenna dimensions is also studied carefully to design appropriate lens from application's point of view. Off axis performance of antenna on hemisphere lens is also studied and redesigning of antenna by some geometric modification has been carried out to improve far field patterns.
The primary purpose of this study was to examine age differences in processing strategies of emotionally difficult trade-off decisions. In addition, the study tested the relevant contributions of the cognitive and emotional mechanisms to age differences in processing strategies. Altogether, 40 younger adults and 40 older adults were randomly assigned to either a high or low emotionally difficult condition of a car-purchasing decision task. MouselabWEB software was used to trace participants’ processing strategies. Results showed that older adults were more likely to use attribute-based processing strategies, whereas younger adults were more likely to use alternative-based processing strategies in the high-emotion condition. In the low-emotion condition, on the other hand, both younger and older adults preferred to use alternative-based processing strategies. Furthermore, the results suggested that the cognitive measure (i.e., digit symbol coding) was not correlated with the age effects on processing strategies.
Non-shared parenting and deviant peer affiliation are linked to differences in externalizing behaviors between twins. However, few studies have examined these two non-shared environments simultaneously. The present study examined the transactional roles of differential parenting (i.e., warmth and hostility) and deviant peer affiliation on monozygotic (MZ) twin differences in externalizing behaviors using a two-wave longitudinal study of twins and their parents. The sample consisted of 520 pairs of MZ twins (46.5% males, 53.5% females), with a mean age of 13.86 years (SD = 2.10) at the T1 assessment, residing in Beijing, China. The association between non-shared hostility in parenting and adolescent externalizing behaviors was mainly explained by a child-driven effect whereby the twin with a higher level of externalizing behaviors than his or her co-twin was more likely to receive more hostility from the parents. Similarly, the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and adolescent externalizing behaviors supported the selection effect whereby the twin with a higher level of externalizing behaviors than his or her co-twin was more likely to affiliate with deviant peers. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Rates of emotional and behavioral problems among children and adolescents in China are increasing and represent a major public health concern. To investigate the etiology of such problems, including the effects and interplay of genes and environment, the Beijing Twin Study (BeTwiSt) was established. A representative sample of adolescent twins in Beijing (N = 1,387 pairs of adolescent twins, mostly between the ages of 10 and 18 years) was recruited and assessed longitudinally. Data collection included the following: emotional and behavioral problems (e.g., depressive symptoms, anxiety, delinquency, drinking, and smoking); family, peer, and school environments; stress; social and academic competence; cognitive traits (e.g., emotion suppression, rumination, and effortful control); and saliva samples for DNA genotyping and sequencing. The combination of quantitative and molecular genetic approaches and the timeliness of the project, with the sample residing in a region with a rapidly changing economic and cultural climate, are particular strengths of this study. Findings from this study are expected to help understanding of the etiological mechanisms underlying child and adolescent normal and abnormal development in regions undergoing substantial social, cultural, and economic changes.
The 2010 World Exposition in Shanghai China (Expo) was the largest mass gathering in world history, attracting a record 72 million visitors. More than 190 countries participated in the Expo, along with more than 50 international organizations. The 2010 Expo was six months in duration (May 1 through October 30, 2010), and the size of the venue site comprised 5.28 square kilometers. Great challenges were imposed on the public health system in Shanghai due to the high number and density of visitors, long duration of the event, and other risk factors such as high temperatures, typhoon, etc.
As the major metropolitan public health agency in Shanghai, the Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention (SCDC) implemented a series of actions in preparing for, and responding to, the potential health impact of the world's largest mass gathering to date, which included partnerships for capacity building, enhancement of internal organizational structure, risk assessment, strengthened surveillance, disaster planning and exercises, laboratory management, vaccination campaign, health education, health intervention, risk communication and mass media surveillance, and technical support for health inspection. The clear-cut organizational structures and job responsibilities, as well as comprehensive operational and scientific preparations, were key elements to ensure the success of the 2010 World Exposition.
YiH, Zheng'anY, FanW, XiangG, ChenD, YongchaoH, XiaodongS, HaoP, MahanyM, KeimM. Public Health Preparedness for the World's Largest Mass Gathering: 2010 World Exposition in Shanghai, China. . 2012;27(6):1-6.
The main aim of this study was to develop and optimize a questionnaire-based zygosity determination method in Chinese adolescent twins. Participants were 471 pairs of same-sex twins (345 monozygotic, 126 dizygotic) with a mean age of 14.56 years (SD = 2.62). A second sample was recruited for cross-validation, including 382 pairs of same-sex twins (261 monozygotic, 121 dizygotic) with a mean age of 12.53 years (SD = 2.22). The questionnaire consisted of 12 questions dealing with co-twin similarity or frequency of confusion. Two means were put forward to improve the predictive accuracy of the questionnaire — adding parent-reports to the analysis, and using a 2-point rather than 3-point response format. DNA genotyping was performed on nine short tandem repeat loci, with an estimated zygosity classification accuracy very close to 100%. The validity of all questionnaires was assessed by being compared to the results of DNA analysis. Results of stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that the predictive accuracy of the 3-point self-reported questionnaire is 83.8%. Using parent-reports and 2-point scale led to 3.9% and 4.6% increase in predictive accuracy, respectively. When using the parent-reports and children's self-reports jointly, the predictive accuracy was enhanced to 90.6%. For the cross-validation, the equations and cut-offs derived from the first sample led to an acceptable accuracy (91.3%) in the second sample. In conclusion, the method we developed can be used in future studies among Chinese adolescent twins. Multiple-rater and 2-point response format were suggested for all twin studies for enhancing the predictive accuracy of questionnaires.
SiH4 and GeH4 Deposition and In-Situ Doping of SiGe/Si Strained Heterostructures by Rapid Thermal Process Very Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition method have been studied in this paper. Ge incorporation rate increases to a maximum value and then decreases as temperature increases, the growth rate of SiGe alloy reaches its maximum value and then decreases as Ge composition increases. Ge incorporation also enhances Si deposition rate in SiGe alloy. The Boron and Phosphorus doping would change thegrowth rate of SiGe layers and the sharp doping interfaces in SiGe/Si heterostructures have been obtained.
In this paper, we report on the experiment results of wet oxidation of Si1-xGex on SiO2. AES and XPS measurements were performed to study the effect of the oxidation on the Si1-xGex layer. A possible mechanism was proposed.
The two-dimensional (2D) Ga-nitride/air photonic quasi-crystals (PQC) were successfully fabricated by the technique of focused Ga ion beam (FIB) milling on GaN based epitaxial wafers. The effects of the PQC on the current injected edge emitting GaN-based light emitters were investigated. The quasi-crystal structures studied in this work are based on square-triangular tiling with 8-fold or 12-fold symmetry. The air hole diameter in the different PQC patterns was varied from 95nm up to 1200nm, the filling factor of air hole was in the range of 10% to 50% and the depth of the hole was 90nm to 370nm, respectively. Among these, the nearest center-to-center distance of the holes and/or the lattice constant was reached to be 170nm. The photonic quasi-crystals on the GaN-based light emitters demonstrated a two to three factor of magnitude enhancement of surface extractive emission. The blocking of the propagation of planar-guided modes by the photonic quasi-crystals was observed. By comparison of symmetry effect among the triangular lattice PC and PQCs, it was found that the GaN-based photonic quasi-crystal (PQC) with 12-fold symmetry provided a much favorable enhancement of the extractive light emission over that of triangle lattice PC and 8-fold symmetric PQC as well.
China currently faces severe environmental challenges, and information regarding the predictors of pro-environmental behaviour in China is needed to manage them. This study addresses this need by modelling the sociodemographic and attitudinal factors predicting pro-environmental behaviour in urban China. Pro-environmental behaviour was modelled as a function of environmental attitude (measured using the new environmental paradigm) and various sociodemographic characteristics. Respondents who were employed, holding leadership positions, living in larger cities and single were more likely to participate in pro-environmental behaviour. These results accord with previous studies suggesting being female, younger, highly educated and having environmentally oriented attitudes increased the odds of participating in pro-environmental behaviour. The rapid urbanization and economic development in China may significantly impact pro-environmental behaviour in the future.
The initiation and evolution of shear bands in Zr64.13Cu15.75Ni10.12Al10 bulk metallic glass tensile samples has been investigated in situ by scanning electron microscopy. The initial shear band originates from the highest stressed area, and does not propagate during further tension, which is attributed to the weakening of the stress field in front of the shear band tip, possibly caused by atomic rearrangement and local temperature rise. As a result, multiple shear bands occur in sequence with gradually increased length and offset. This result is due to the fact that the stress in front of the tip of the initial shear band does not concentrate again during further tension above the shear yield strength. Numerical analysis was carried out to investigate the stress distribution under tension, suggesting that the maximum pressure-dependent shear stress criterion overestimates the yield strength, while the shear plane criterion describes the conditions for the formation of shear bands well.
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