A questionnaire survey was sent to a random sample of the Spanish network of National Health System public acute-care hospitals. Of responding institutions (representing 25% of Spanish hospital beds), nearly 75% had active surveillance programs for the prevention and control of surgical-site infections (SSIs), but only 20% performed postdischarge surveillance. Overall, perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis (PAP) was used in 84% of all surgical procedures. For 77% of procedures, there were written guidelines for the choice and use of PAR Cefazolin was the most commonly used antibiotic (38%). Duration of PAP was shorter than 24 hours in 75% of procedures, and only a single dose was given in 52% of procedures. PAP was commonly used in breast (52%) and inguinal hernia repair (69%) procedures, as well as in laparoscopic abdominal surgery (86%). In summary, the use of PAP in Spanish hospitals is adequate, but improvements can be made in the frequency of prolonged PAP and in the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Surveillance systems for SSI, including postdischarge follow-up, also should be improved.