Transient energy supply remains one of the key challenges limiting the development of transient implantable medical devices for monitoring, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases within a predetermined time frame. A key feature of such devices is their controllable degradation during service life. An on-board transient energy supply with predictable performance over time is required to drive transient electronics. In this article, we present recent advances in the development of materials for biodegradable energy-storage devices (batteries and supercapacitors) and biodegradable energy-harvesting systems (enzymatic biofuel cells and triboelectric nanogenerators). Future perspectives, challenges, and opportunities related to energy materials for transient power sources will also be summarized.