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Methomyl is a broad-spectrum carbamate insecticide that has a variety of toxic effects on humans and animals. However, there have been no studies on the toxicity of methomyl in female mammalian oocytes. This study investigated the toxic effects of environmental oestrogen methomyl exposure on mouse oocyte maturation and its possible mechanisms. Our results indicated that methomyl exposure inhibited polar body extrusion in mouse oocytes. Compared with that in the control group, in the methomyl treatment group, superoxide anion free radicals in oocytes were significantly increased. In addition, the mitochondrial membrane potential of metaphase II stage oocytes in the methomyl treatment group was significantly decreased, resulting in reduced mouse oocyte quality. After 8.5 h of exposure to methomyl, metaphase I stage mouse oocytes displayed an abnormal spindle morphology. mRNA expression of the pro-apoptotic genes Bax and Caspase-3 in methomyl-treated oocytes increased, which confirmed the apoptosis. Collectively, our results indicated that mouse oocyte maturation is defective after methomyl treatment at least through disruption of spindle morphology, mitochondrial function and by induction of oxidative stress.
Understanding factors associated with post-discharge sleep quality among COVID-19 survivors is important for intervention development.
This study investigated sleep quality and its correlates among COVID-19 patients 6 months after their most recent hospital discharge.
Healthcare providers at hospitals located in five different Chinese cities contacted adult COVID-19 patients discharged between 1 February and 30 March 2020. A total of 199 eligible patients provided verbal informed consent and completed the interview. Using score on the single-item Sleep Quality Scale as the dependent variable, multiple linear regression models were fitted.
Among all participants, 10.1% reported terrible or poor sleep quality, and 26.6% reported fair sleep quality, 26.1% reported worse sleep quality when comparing their current status with the time before COVID-19, and 33.7% were bothered by a sleeping disorder in the past 2 weeks. After adjusting for significant background characteristics, factors associated with sleep quality included witnessing the suffering (adjusted B = −1.15, 95% CI = −1.70, −0.33) or death (adjusted B = −1.55, 95% CI = −2.62, −0.49) of other COVID-19 patients during hospital stay, depressive symptoms (adjusted B = −0.26, 95% CI = −0.31, −0.20), anxiety symptoms (adjusted B = −0.25, 95% CI = −0.33, −0.17), post-traumatic stress disorders (adjusted B = −0.16, 95% CI = −0.22, −0.10) and social support (adjusted B = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.10).
COVID-19 survivors reported poor sleep quality. Interventions and support services to improve sleep quality should be provided to COVID-19 survivors during their hospital stay and after hospital discharge.
The majority of plant viral disease is transmitted and spread by insect vectors in the field. The small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), is the only efficient vector for rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a devastating plant virus that infects multiple grain crops, including rice, maize, and wheat. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters participate in various biological processes. However, little is known about whether ABC transporters affect virus infection in insects. In this study, RBSDV accumulation was significantly reduced in L. striatellus after treatment with verapamil, an effective inhibitor of ABC transporters. Thirty-four ABC transporter genes were identified in L. striatellus and expression analysis showed that LsABCF2 and LsABCG9 were significantly upregulated and downregulated, respectively, after RBSDV infection. LsABCF2 and LsABCG9 were expressed during all developmental stages, and LsABCG9 was highly expressed in the midgut of L. striatellus. Knockdown of LsABCF2 promoted RBSDV accumulation, while knockdown of LsABCG9 suppressed RBSDV accumulation in L. striatellus. Our data showed that L. striatellus might upregulate the expression of LsABCF2 and downregulate LsABCG9 expression to suppress RBSDV infection. These results will contribute to understanding the effects of ABC transporters on virus transmission and provide theoretical basis for virus management in the field.
Chronic inflammation exerts pleiotropic effects in the aetiology and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Glucosamine is widely used in many countries and may have anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to prospectively evaluate the association of regular glucosamine use with incident COPD risk and explore whether such association could be modified by smoking in the UK Biobank cohort, which recruited more than half a million participants aged 40–69 years from across the UK between 2006 and 2010. Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for potential confounding factors were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) as well as 95 % CI for the risk of incident COPD. During a median follow-up of 8·96 years (interquartile range 8·29–9·53 years), 9016 new-onset events of COPD were documented. We found that the regular use of glucosamine was associated with a significantly lower risk of incident COPD with multivariable adjusted HR of 0·80 (95 % CI, 0·75, 0·85; P < 0·001). When subgroup analyses were performed by smoking status, the adjusted HR for the association of regular glucosamine use with incident COPD were 0·84 (0·73, 0·96), 0·84 (0·77, 0·92) and 0·71 (0·62, 0·80) among never smokers, former smokers and current smokers, respectively. No significant interaction was observed between glucosamine use and smoking status (Pfor interaction = 0·078). Incident COPD could be reduced by 14 % to 84 % through a combination of regular glucosamine use and smoking cessation.
Epidemiological studies have shown that higher intake of flavonoid is inversely associated with CHD risk. However, which flavonoid subclass could reduce CHD risk has remained controversial. The present meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies aimed to quantitatively assess the associations between flavonoid subclasses and CHD risk. A systematic literature search was implemented from PubMed and Web of Science databases up to March 2021, and eligible studies were identified. Multivariate-adjust relative risks (RR) with corresponding 95 % CI were pooled by using a random-effects model. A restricted cubic spline regression model was performed for non-linear dose–response analysis. A total of 19 independent prospective cohort studies with 894 471 participants and 34 707 events were included. The results showed that dietary intakes of anthocyanins (RR = 0·90; 95 % CI: 0·83, 0·98), proanthocyanidins (RR = 0·78; 95 % CI: 0·65, 0·94), flavonols (RR = 0·88; 95 % CI: 0·79, 0·98), flavones (RR = 0·94; 95 % CI: 0·89, 0·99) and isoflavones (RR = 0·90; 95 % CI: 0·83, 0·98) were negatively associated with CHD risk. Dose–response analysis showed that increment of 50 mg/d anthocyanins, 100 mg/d proanthocyanidins, 25 mg/d flavonols, 5 mg/d flavones and 0·5 mg/d isoflavones were associated with 5 % reduction in CHD risk, respectively. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were used to further support these associations. The present results indicate that dietary intakes of fruits and vegetables abundant five flavonoid subclasses, namely anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, flavones and isoflavones, are associated with a lower risk of CHD.
Although employee creativity has been identified to promote organizational competitiveness, its effect on leader empowering behaviors remains underexplored. This study investigated the underlying mechanism and boundary condition under which employee creativity influences leader empowering behaviors. Drawn on social exchange theory and similarity-attraction theory, this study developed a moderated-mediation model in which supervisor–subordinate guanxi serves as the intervening mechanism and supervisor–subordinate similarity serves as a boundary condition influencing this relationship. Using three-wave, time-lagged survey data collected from 309 supervisor–subordinate dyads, this study found that supervisor–subordinate guanxi mediates the relationship between employee creativity and leader empowering behaviors, and that this relationship is stronger when supervisor–subordinate similarity is high rather than low. Finally, theoretical and practical implications were discussed.
Nutritional Risk Screening index is a standard tool to assess nutritional risk, but epidemiological data are scarce on controlling nutritional status (CONUT) as a prognostic marker in acute haemorrhagic stroke (AHS). We aimed to explore whether the CONUT may predict a 3-month functional outcome in AHS. In total, 349 Chinese patients with incident AHS were consecutively recruited, and their malnutrition risks were determined using a high CONUT score of ≥ 2. The cohort patients were divided into high-CONUT (≥ 2) and low-CONUT (< 2) groups, and primary outcomes were a poor functional prognosis defined as the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of ≥ 3 at post-discharge for 3 months. Odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the poor functional prognosis at post-discharge were estimated by using a logistic analysis with additional adjustments for unbalanced variables between the high-CONUT and low-CONUT groups. A total of 328 patients (60·38 ± 12·83 years; 66·77 % male) completed the mRS assessment at post-discharge for 3 months, with 172 patients at malnutrition risk at admission and 104 patients with a poor prognosis. The levels of total cholesterol and total lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in high-CONUT patients than low-CONUT patients (P = 0·012 and < 0·001, respectively). At 3-month post discharge, there was a greater risk for the poor outcome in the high-CONUT compared with the low-CONUT patients at admission (OR: 2·32, 95 % CI: 1·28, 4·17). High-CONUT scores independently predict a 3-month poor prognosis in AHS, which helps to identify those who need additional nutritional managements.
This paper is concerned with spreading phenomena of the classical two-species Lotka-Volterra reaction-diffusion system in the weak competition case. More precisely, some new sufficient conditions on the linear or nonlinear speed selection of the minimal wave speed of travelling wave fronts, which connect one half-positive equilibrium and one positive equilibrium, have been given via constructing types of super-sub solutions. Moreover, these conditions for the linear or nonlinear determinacy are quite different from that of the minimal wave speeds of travelling wave fronts connecting other equilibria of Lotka-Volterra competition model. In addition, based on the weighted energy method, we give the global exponential stability of such solutions with large speed $c$. Specially, when the competition rate exerted on one species converges to zero, then for any $c>c_0$, where $c_0$ is the critical speed, the travelling wave front with the speed $c$ is globally exponentially stable.
The coffee white stem borer, Xylotrechus quadripes Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is a major destructive pest of Coffea arabica L. (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), widely planted in many Asian countries, including China. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a common method for quantitative analysis of gene transcription levels. To obtain accurate and reliable qRT-PCR results, it is necessary to select suitable reference genes to different experimental conditions for normalizing the target gene expression. However, the stability of the expression of reference genes in X. quadripes has rarely been studied. In this study, the expression stability of nine candidate reference genes were investigated under biotic and abiotic conditions for use in qRT-PCR's normalization. By integrating the results of four algorithms of NormFinder, BestKeeper, geNorm, and RefFinder, the optimal reference gene combinations in different experimental conditions were performed as follows: RPL10a and EIF3D were the optimal reference genes for developmental stage samples, EIF4E, RPL10a, and RPS27a for tissue samples, V-ATP and EF1α for the sex samples, EIF3D and V-ATP for temperature treatment, RPS27a and RPL10a for insecticide stress, and RPL10a, RPS27a, and EF1α for all the samples. This study will help to obtain the stable internal reference genes under biotic and abiotic conditions and lay the foundation for in-depth functional research of target genes or genomics on olfactory molecular mechanisms, temperature adaptability, and insecticide resistance in X. quadripes.
Inflammation is a central mechanism in metabolic disorders associated with morbidity and mortality and dietary factors can modulate inflammation. We aimed to prospectively investigate the association between an empirically developed, food-based dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score and the risk of overall and cause-specific mortality, using data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 to 2014. EDIP score was derived by entering thirty-nine predefined commonly consumed food groups into the reduced rank regression models followed by stepwise linear regression, which was most predictive of two plasma inflammation biomarkers including C-reactive protein and leucocyte count among 25 500 US adults. This score was further validated in a testing set of 9466 adults. Deaths from baseline until 31 December 2015 were identified through record linkage to the National Death Index. During a median follow-up of 7·8 years among 40 074 participants, we documented 4904 deaths. Compared with participants in the lowest quintile of EDIP score, those in the highest quintile had a higher risk of overall death (hazard ratio (HR) = 1·19, 95 % CI 1·08, 1·32, Ptrend = 0·002), and deaths from cancer (HR = 1·41, 95 % CI 1·14, 1·74, Ptrend = 0·017) and CVD (HR = 1·22, 95 % CI 0·98, 1·53, Ptrend = 0·211). When stratified by age, the association of EDIP with overall mortality was stronger among individuals under 65 years of age (Pinteraction = 0·001). Diets with a higher inflammatory potential were associated with increased risk of overall and cancer-specific mortality. Interventions to reduce the adverse effect of pro-inflammatory diets may potentially promote health and longevity.
In recent years, the controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score has increasingly became an effective indicator associated with tumor prognosis. This study was conducted to synthesise data on the prognostic value of CONUT score on patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) or renal cell carcinoma (RCC) undergoing nephrectomy.
We designed and performed a systematic analysis of studies that verified the correlation between preoperative CONUT score and prognosis for UTUC and RCC using PubMed, Web of Science and Embase. The conclusion was clarified by pooled hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Subgroup analysis were further conducted in accordance with different primary tumor.
Six studies involving 3529 patients were included in this evidence synthesis, which revealed that the CONUT score had a potential role to predict the survival of UTUC and RCC patients accepting surgery. Pooled analysis showed that the overall survival (OS, HR 2.32, p<0.0001), cancer-special survival (CSS, HR 2.68, p<0.0001) and disease-free survival (DFS, HR 1.62, p<0.00001) were inferior in the high CONUT score group when compared with low score group. Subgroup analysis revealed that this result was in line with UTUC (OS: HR 1.86, P=0.02; CSS: HR 2.24, P=0.01; DFS: HR 1.54, P<0.00001) and RCC (OS: HR 3.05, P<0.00001; CSS: HR 3.47, P<0.00001; DFS: HR 2.21, P=0.0005) patients respectively.
The CONUT score is a valuable preoperative index to predict the survival of patients with UTUC or RCC undergoing nephrectomy.
No relevant studies have yet been conducted to explore which measurement can best predict the survival time of patients with cancer cachexia. This study aimed to identify an anthropometric measurement that could predict the 1-year survival of patients with cancer cachexia. We conducted a nested case–control study using data from a multicentre clinical investigation of cancer from 2013 to 2020. Cachexia was defined using the Fearon criteria. A total of 262 patients who survived less than 1 year and 262 patients who survived more than 1 year were included in this study. Six candidate variables were selected based on clinical experience and previous studies. Five variables, BMI, mid-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, calf circumference and triceps skin fold (TSF), were selected for inclusion in the multivariable model. In the conditional logistic regression analysis, TSF (P = 0·014) was identified as a significant independent protective factor. A similar result was observed in all patients with cancer cachexia (n 3084). In addition, a significantly stronger positive association between TSF and the 1-year survival of patients with cancer cachexia was observed in participants aged > 65 years (OR: 0·94; 95 % CI 0·89, 0·99) than in those aged ≤ 65 years (OR: 0·96; 95 % CI 0·93, 0·99; Pinteraction = 0·013) and in participants with no chronic disease (OR: 0·92; 95 % CI 0·87, 0·97) than in those with chronic disease (OR: 0·97; 95 % CI 0·94, 1·00; Pinteraction = 0·049). According to this study, TSF might be a good anthropometric measurement for predicting 1-year survival in patients with cancer cachexia.