As biological science advances, there is a need for new technical tools to study biological matters. In neuroscience, new knowledge on the nervous system is discovered through biological experiments carried out under in vitro conditions. As experiments become more delicate, the technical requirements also increase. Recent advances in nano- and microscale technologies have increased the applicability of new emerging technology to neurobiology and neural engineering. As a result, many materials that were not originally developed for neural interfaces have become attractive candidates to sense neural signals, stimulate neurons, and grow nerve cells for tissue engineering. This article focuses on the material requirements for in vitro neural interfaces and introduces materials that are used to design various neural interface platforms in vitro.